LaTeX forum ⇒ Graphics, Figures & TablesExtra space after \ref with tables/figures Topic is solved

Information and discussion about graphics, figures & tables in LaTeX documents.
olw
Posts: 2
Joined: Mon Oct 11, 2021 4:06 pm

Extra space after \ref with tables/figures

Postby olw » Mon Oct 11, 2021 4:14 pm

Dear all,
I am editing my article that is supposed to be published in a certain science journal, and therefore comes with a specific template. The problem that I have is that I get extra space after every refence to any figure or table and there's absolutely nothing in my code that could imply that extra space.

What the text look like in the .tex file:
However, the radio spectra of quasars are changing rapidly with time. It is manifested by a flattening in the optically thin part of the spectrum. An example of such behavior are the changes seen in the spectrum of the quasar 013815$+$00 in Fig.\ref{013815}. As a result, after a few years of radio activity the quasars start to look like flat-spectrum objects, while galaxies keep their convex shape of the spectra.
The phenomenon responsible for this characteristics is the birth of a new radio jet and the observed rapid changes are associated with its expansion and dissipation of energy. The differences in the behavior of the spectrum of galaxies and quasars over time are probably related to their different orientation in relation to the observer. And indeed the high-resolution 4.5 and 7.5 GHz VLBA images show the presence of small jets in case of some of our objects (see example in Fig.\ref{013815}). Nevertheless, these jets are not very prominent, and most of the objects remained unresolved in these observations.


What it looks like in the pdf file:
Image


Since I haven't put any space anywhere, I thought maybe the template I was provided with by a publisher causes that effect, but I can't really find it when I try reading it.
Could you help?

%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
%%
%% This file is copyright by SPi Technologies Ltd. All rights reserved.
%%
%% Author:       SPi, LaTeX Development Team, Chennai (India)
%% Created On: 
%% Last Modified By:
%% Last Modified On:
%% Description:  Class file to support authoring template in LaTeX typesetting 
%%               for Wiley Journals
%%
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%

\NeedsTeXFormat{LaTeX2e}[2009/09/24]
\ProvidesClass{WileyASNA-v2}
              [2017/06/23 v0.2 Standard LaTeX document class for Journal]

\newif\if@cropmarkson\@cropmarksonfalse
\newif\if@croppage\@croppagefalse
\newif\if@draftruleson\@draftrulesonfalse
\newif\if@exactptsize\@exactptsizefalse
\newif\if@pagenum   \@pagenumfalse%
\newif\if@purexml\global\@purexmlfalse
\newif\if@xml\global\@xmlfalse
\newif\if@hyperrefon  \@hyperrefonfalse%
\newif\ifbibunnumbered\global\bibunnumberedtrue%
\newif\ifproof\global\prooffalse%
\newif\ifEqnSpan\global\EqnSpantrue% 
\newif\if@dblspace\global\@dblspacefalse% 

\newif\if@font@stix\global\@font@stixtrue%

\def\dummyalphabet{\vphantom{abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz0123456789}}


\DeclareOption{doublespace}{\global\@dblspacetrue}

\DeclareOption{draftrules}{\global\@draftrulesontrue}
\DeclareOption{exactsize}{\global\@exactptsizetrue}%
\DeclareOption{noexactsize}{\global\@exactptsizefalse}%
\DeclareOption{croppage}{\global\@croppagetrue\global\@cropmarksontrue}%
\DeclareOption{number}{\xdef\@biboptions{numbers}}
\DeclareOption{numbers}{\xdef\@biboptions{numbers}}
\DeclareOption{EqnSpan}{\global\EqnSpantrue}%%

\DeclareOption{proof}{%
\global\prooftrue%
\global\@hyperrefontrue%
}%

\DeclareOption{final}{%
\global\prooffalse%
\global\@hyperrefontrue% links and bookmarks are removed through PDF action list post PDF creation
}%

\def\@JrnlID{}%
\gdef\JrnlID#1{\gdef\@JrnlID{#1}}%

\def\@YES{YES}%
\def\@NO{NO}%

%
%%%%%%%%% From Boolean Package %%%%%%%%%
%

\newcommand {\TRUE}[2]{#1}
\newcommand {\FALSE}[2]{#2}

%% Public commands are also given inner hidden names

\let \bln@true \TRUE
\let \bln@false \FALSE

\newcommand {\AND}[2]{#1{#2}{\bln@false}}
\newcommand {\OR}[2]{#1{\bln@true}{#2}}
\newcommand {\NOT}[1]{#1{\bln@false}{\bln@true}}
\newcommand {\IF}[3]{#1{#2}{#3}}

\let \bln@and \AND
\let \bln@or  \OR
\let \bln@not \NOT
\let \bln@if  \IF


%% To convert if.. macros into Booleans:

\newcommand {\texbool}[1]
    {#1\let \bln@do \bln@true \else \let \bln@do \bln@false\fi \bln@do}
%% Does not work
\let \bln@tex \texbool

\newcommand {\ifxbool}[2]
    {\ifx #1#2\let \bln@do \bln@true \else \let \bln@do \bln@false \fi \bln@do}
\let \bln@ifx \ifxbool

\newcommand {\ifybool}[2]
    {\def \bln@testa{#1}\ifxbool{\bln@testa}{#2}}
\let \bln@ify \ifybool

\newcommand {\ifequalbool}[2]
    {\def \bln@testa{#1}\def \bln@testb{#2}\ifxbool{\bln@testa}{\bln@testb}}
\let \bln@ifequal \ifequalbool

\def \bln@empty {}
\newcommand {\ifemptybool}[1]
    {\ifybool{#1}{\bln@empty}}
\let \bln@ifempty \ifemptybool

%% To force evaluation, e.g. if a blnlean expression is to be used several
%% times. This takes a Boolean expression and returns a Boolean value, i.e.
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\newcommand* {\letboolval}[2]
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\newcommand* {\newboolval}[2]
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%% We provide list versions of And and Or

\def \bln@scan #1,#2\bln@to#3#4{%
    \bln@ifempty{#2}{#3{#4}{#1}}
          {\bln@scan #2\bln@to {#3}{#3{#4}{#1}}}%
}
\def \bln@eval #1#2#3{%
    \bln@ifempty{#1}{#3}%
          {\bln@scan #1,\bln@to {#2}{#3}}%
}

\newcommand*{\ANDL}[1]{\bln@eval {#1}{\bln@and}{\bln@true}}
\newcommand*{\ORL} [1]{\bln@eval {#1}{\bln@or}{\bln@false}}

%% In some contexts, shorter names may be more convenient

\newcommand*{\ShorterBooleanNames}{%
  \let \true  \bln@true
  \let \false \bln@true
  \let \or    \bln@or
  \let \and   \bln@and
  \let \not   \bln@not
  \let \orl   \bln@orl
  \let \andl  \bln@andl
}

%% Comparisson between strings

\newcommand {\stringmatch}[3]{%
   \def \@match ##1#2##2\str@sep ##3\str@sep ##4\str@end
        {#1{##1}{##2}{\ifequalbool{#2}{##3}}}%
   \@match #3\str@sep #2\str@sep \str@sep \str@end
}
\let \str@match \stringmatch

%% The following commands takes in order Prefix Infix Suffix Left

\def \str@infix  #1#2#3{#3}
\def \str@prefix #1#2#3{\AND{#3}{\ifemptybool{#1}}}
\def \str@suffix #1#2#3{\AND{#3}{\ifemptybool{#2}}}

\newcommand {\ifstringinfix} {\str@match {\str@infix}}
\newcommand {\ifstringsuffix}{\str@match {\str@suffix}}
\newcommand {\ifstringprefix}{\str@match {\str@prefix}}

%%%%%%%%%%% From ifjobname Package %%%%%%%%%%%%%

\edef \@jobname {\jobname}

%% Simple equality
\def \job@eattwo #1#2{}
\def \ifjobname #1{%
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}

%%

\newtoks \job@temptoken

\def \ifjob@iffix #1#2{%
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\def \job@infix {\ifxbool{\tmp@left}{\arg@one}}
\def \job@suffix
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\def \job@prefix
     {\AND{\ifxbool{\tmp@left}{\arg@one}}{\ifxbool{\empty}{\tmp@prefix}}}

\newcommand {\ifjobinfix} {\ifjob@iffix {\job@infix}}
\newcommand {\ifjobsuffix}{\ifjob@iffix {\job@suffix}}
\newcommand {\ifjobprefix}{\ifjob@iffix {\job@prefix}}

%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%


%\ExecuteOptions{twosidecrop,crop,centre,noinfo,a3paper,exactsize,croppage}%
\ProcessOptions
\LoadClass[twoside,fleqn,twocolumn]{article}%

%\usepackage{etex}%
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\RequirePackage{calc}%
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\RequirePackage{longtable}%
%%\RequirePackage{threeparttable}%
\RequirePackage{ulem}%
\RequirePackage{enumerate}%
\RequirePackage{soul}
\usepackage{caption}
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%\if@hyperrefon%
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%  \RequirePackage{breakurl}%
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%\fi%
\RequirePackage [labelformat=empty]{subfig}%
\RequirePackage{twoopt}%
\RequirePackage[bottom]{footmisc}% to place footnotes below floats

\AtBeginDocument{\if@dblspace\usepackage{setspace}\doublespacing\fi}%

\RequirePackage{tabularx}%%  COMPULSARILY HAS TO BE INPUTTED TO USE \tabpara% XMT: Update


%\newcounter{boxcnt}%
%\newcommand\boxsection[1]{\begingroup\vskip2pt%
%\refstepcounter{boxcnt}%
%\vbox{{\textcolor{black!75}{\bfseries BOX \theboxcnt.}}\quad {\bfseries#1}}\par%
%\removelastskip\vskip4pt%
%\endgroup}


\usepackage[framemethod=default]{mdframed}
\mdfsetup{linewidth=1pt,topline=true,bottomline=true,skipabove=\topskip,skipbelow=\topskip}
\newenvironment{boxtext}{\begingroup%
\begin{mdframed}}{\par\end{mdframed}\endgroup}



%% ========================================================= %%
%% If array package is included before dcolumn package,      %%
%% array environment inside eqnarray throw errors            %%
%% array package is included in dcolumn package; do not      %%
%% include array.sty again in Wileyarticle.cls anywhere;     %%
%% ========================================================= %%
\RequirePackage{varwidth}%
\RequirePackage{dcolumn}% 
%
%% Fonts Used
%
\RequirePackage[not1,notextcomp,lcgreekalpha]{stix}%
\usepackage[T1]{fontenc}


%\RequirePackage[not1,notextcomp,lcgreekalpha]{stix}%

\captionsetup[figure]{labelformat=simple, labelsep=none, skip=10pt, labelfont=bf}
\captionsetup[table]{labelformat=simple, labelsep=none, skip=10pt, labelfont=bf}
\renewcommand{\thefigure}{\arabic{figure}\enspace }

\renewcommand{\thetable}{\arabic{table}\enspace }

\renewcommand\figurename{\textbf{FIGURE}}%%
\renewcommand\tablename{\textbf{TABLE}} %%

\def\fnum@figure{\figurenumfont{\figurename}\space\relax\textbf{\thefigure\hskip9pt}} %%LN

%
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% Layout Settings %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
%
\newlength\trimwidth
\newlength\trimheight
\newlength\typewidth
\newlength\typeheight
\newlength\normaltextheight
\newlength\blindfoliodrop
\newlength\figheight
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\newlength\tabledim


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\setlength\paperheight{276mm}%

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\setlength\textwidth{177.8mm}

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%
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\setlength{\marginparsep}{18\p@}%
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\setlength{\skip\footins}{18pt plus2pt minus2pt}%

\newskip\abs@coli@hsize\abs@coli@hsize12pc%
\newskip\abs@colii@hsize\abs@colii@hsize29pc%

\RequirePackage[paperwidth=210mm,
    paperheight=276mm,
%%  top={26pt+21pt+11pt},
    top={25.5pt+21pt+11pt},
    headheight={21pt},% incl. rule
    headsep={11pt},
    left={\oddsidemargin},
    right={\evensidemargin},
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    marginparsep=0pt,
    columnsep=0pt,
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    footskip=48.5pt,twocolumn,columnsep=1pc,
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%
\newdimen\parindentvalue%
\parindentvalue=1em%
%
\setlength\parindent{\parindentvalue}%
%
\ifpdf%
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        \if@croppage%
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        \fi%
    \fi%
\fi%

%
% Footnotes
%
%%\renewcommand\thefootnote{\@fnsymbol\c@footnote}%


%


%
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% Pagination Settings %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
%
% Line spacing
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\setlength\normallineskip{0\p@}%
\renewcommand\baselinestretch{}%
\parskip=\z@%

\pagenumbering{arabic}%
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%%\flushbottom

%%% special parameters for TeX
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\linepenalty=100


% Page break penalties
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% The minimum amount of a text page that must be occupied by text.
% This should accomodate four lines of text.
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\renewcommand\textfraction{.1}%

% The minimum amount of a float page that must be occupied by floats.
%%\renewcommand\floatpagefraction{.887}%
\renewcommand\floatpagefraction{.95}%

% The same parameters repeated for double column output
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% Space between floats and text
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%
%%\def\resettextfloatsep{\makeatletter\setlength\textfloatsep{13.5\p@ \@plus 2.875\p@ \@minus 1.4375\p@}\makeatother}%
%
% Space above and below an inline figure
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% For double column floats
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\setlength\dbltextfloatsep{24\p@ \@plus 2.875\p@ \@minus 1.4375\p@}%

\hyphenation{Figure Figures Table Tables Equation Equations Section Sections Appendix Theorem Lemma Proposition Corollary}% 
\hyphenation{Claim Conjecture Property Remark Problem Example Definition Algorithm Assumption Axiom Case Hypotheses Note Proof}% 

%%% miscellaneous macros %%%
\def\zz#1{\vphantom{#1}}%
\def\nobreaktie{\penalty\@M\hbox{\ }} % tie

%
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% Draftrules %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
%
%%% To print grid lines on all pages
\newdimen\pageheight\global\pageheight=\textheight%
\newcount\rulecount\rulecount=1%
%
\newdimen\leftcolrulepos
\newdimen\rightcolrulepos
%
\edef\slugtoday{\two@digits{\the\day}/\two@digits{\the\month}/\the\year}%
%
\def\PrintGridLines{%
{\color{black!10}%
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%%14Mar16%%
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%
\RequirePackage{showframe}
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%
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%    \if@watermarkon\AtTextUpperLeft{%
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%%14Mar16%%
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  \endgroup
}%
\else
\renewcommand\ShowFramePicture{%
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\advance\rightcolrulepos by \columnsep%
  \begingroup
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%    \if@watermarkon\AtTextUpperLeft{%
%      \put(\LenToUnit{\textwidth},41){\llap{\fontsize{8}{10}\selectfont {\rm JrnlID\ \@JrnlID\_ArtID \@artid\_Proof\#1 - \slugtoday}}}}\fi%
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  \endgroup
}%
\fi%

%% Miscellaneous macros %%

\newdimen\artopleftskipdim%
\artopleftskipdim=36.25pt%

\def\hb{\hfill\break}%
\def\uns{\ifmmode\,\else$\,$\fi}%
\def\raggedcenter{\leftskip=0pt plus 0.5fil\rightskip=0pt plus 0.5fil\parfillskip=0pt}%
\def\artopraggedright{\leftskip=\artopleftskipdim\rightskip=0pt plus 1fil\parfillskip=0pt\relax}%

%% Metadata Info %%

\def\@artid{xx}% pub-id
\def\@jname{xxx}%
\def\@jvol{\emph{xxx}}%
\def\@eissn{xx}%
\def\@pissn{xx}%
%%\def\@copyyear{xxxx}%
\def\copyyr{xxxx}%
\def\@jnlyear{xxxx}%
\def\@doi{}%
\def\@pubname{ }%
\def\@arteditor{}%

\def\artid#1{\gdef\@artid{#1}}%
\def\@jid{}%
\def\jid#1{\gdef\@jid{#1}}%
\def\jname#1{\gdef\@jname{#1}}%
\def\jvol#1{\gdef\@jvol{#1}}%
\def\eissn#1{\gdef\@eissn{#1}}%
\def\pissn#1{\gdef\@pissn{#1}}%
\def\copyyear#1{\gdef\copyyr{#1}}%
\def\jyear#1{%%\gdef\copyyear{#1}
\gdef\@jnlyear{#1}}%
\def\doi#1{\gdef\@doi{#1}}%
\def\pubname#1{\gdef\@pubname{#1}}%
%%\def\arteditor#1{\gdef\@arteditor{\acadeditorfont Academic Editor:\ #1}}%
%%\def\aceditor#1{\gdef\@arteditor{\acadeditorfont Academic Editor:\ #1}}%

\def\jmonth#1{\gdef\@jmonth{#1}}%


\def\@copyeditor{}%
\def\copyeditor#1{\gdef\@copyeditor{#1}}%

\def\orcid[#1]#2#3{}%
\newcommand{\orgdiv}[1]{#1}%
\newcommand{\orgname}[1]{#1}%
\newcommand{\orgaddress}[1]{#1}%
\newcommand{\street}[1]{#1}%
\newcommand{\postcode}[1]{#1}%
\newcommand{\city}[1]{#1}%
\newcommand{\state}[1]{#1}%
\newcommand{\country}[1]{#1}%

%%\def\PI#1{{#1}}%
%%\def\licenseVal#1{}%

\def\@copyname{}%
\newcommand\copyrightinfo[2][]{\if!#2!\gdef\@copyname{}\else\gdef\@copyname{\copyrightfont#2\ \@licenseVal}\fi}%

%% Macros for firstpage %%

\def\startpage#1{%
  \gdef\temp{#1}%
  \ifx\temp\@empty%
    \def\@firstpage{1}%
  \else%
    \def\@firstpage{#1}%
    \setcounter{page}{#1}%
    \setcounter{spagecounter}{#1}%
  \fi%
}%
\def\@firstpage{}

\def\endpage#1{\gdef\@endpage{#1}}
\def\@endpage{}

%
%% Cross Link for Author & Address
%
\def\jmkLabel#1{\@bsphack\protected@write\@auxout{}{\string\Newlabel{#1}{\@currentlabel}}\@esphack}%
\def\Newlabel#1#2{\expandafter\xdef\csname X@#1\endcsname{#2}}%
\def\jmkRef#1{\@ifundefined{X@#1}{0}{\csname X@#1\endcsname}}%

%
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% Updation for xml conversion
%
\gdef\@FirstPg{}%
\gdef\@LastPg{}%
%
\def\FirstPg#1{\if!#1!\else\gdef\@FirstPg{#1}\fi}%
\def\LastPg#1{\if!#1!\else\gdef\@LastPg{#1}\fi}%

%\newcount\LastAQCnt%

\newwrite\@xmlpage
\openout\@xmlpage=\jobname.pag
\newcounter{spagecounter}
\newcounter{lpagecounter}
%%\AtBeginDocument{\setcounter{spagecounter}{\c@page}}
\AtEndDocument{\setcounter{lpagecounter}{\c@page}%
\addtocounter{lpagecounter}{-1}%
\immediate\write\@xmlpage{\string\FirstPg{\thespagecounter}\string\LastPg{\thelpagecounter}}%
\immediate\write\@auxout{\string\FirstPg{\thespagecounter}\string\LastPg{\thelpagecounter}}%
\immediate\closeout\@xmlpage%
}%

%% Fonts definitions %%

\if@font@stix%
  \def\footnotetextfont{\rmfamily\fontsize{8bp}{10bp}\selectfont}\else%
  %%
  \def\footnotetextfont{\rmfamily\fontsize{6bp}{8bp}\selectfont}
\fi%
%


%\usepackage{microtype}
%\DisableLigatures[f]{encoding = *, family = * }

\newcommand{\sbdefault}{sb}
\DeclareRobustCommand\sbseries{\not@math@alphabet\sbseries\mathbf\fontseries\sbdefault\selectfont}
\DeclareTextFontCommand{\textsb}{\sbseries}
\DeclareRobustCommand\sfitseries{\not@math@alphabet\sfitseries\normalfont\fontseries{m}\fontshape{it}\selectfont}
\DeclareTextFontCommand{\textsfi}{\sfitseries}
\DeclareOldFontCommand{\rm}{\normalfont\rmfamily}{\mathrm}
\DeclareOldFontCommand{\sf}{\normalfont\sffamily}{\mathsf}
\DeclareOldFontCommand{\tt}{\normalfont\ttfamily}{\mathtt}
\DeclareOldFontCommand{\bf}{\normalfont\bfseries}{\mathbf}
\DeclareOldFontCommand{\it}{\normalfont\itshape}{\mathit}
\DeclareOldFontCommand{\sl}{\normalfont\slshape}{\@nomath\sl}
\DeclareOldFontCommand{\sc}{\normalfont\scshape}{\@nomath\sc}
\DeclareRobustCommand*\cal{\@fontswitch\relax\mathcal}
\DeclareRobustCommand*\mit{\@fontswitch\relax\mathnormal}
\if@exactptsize%
  \def\set@fontsize#1#2#3{%
    \@defaultunits\@tempdimb#2bp\relax\@nnil%
    \edef\f@size{\strip@pt\@tempdimb}%
    \@defaultunits\@tempskipa#3bp\relax\@nnil%
    \edef\f@baselineskip{\the\@tempskipa}%
    \edef\f@linespread{#1}%
    \let\baselinestretch\f@linespread%
    \def\size@update{%
      \baselineskip\f@baselineskip\relax%
      \baselineskip\f@linespread\baselineskip%
      \normalbaselineskip\baselineskip%
      \setbox\strutbox\hbox{\vrule\@height.7\baselineskip\@depth.3\baselineskip\@width\z@}%
      \let\size@update\relax%
    }%
  }%
\fi%
\renewcommand\normalsize{%
  \if@font@stix%
    \@setfontsize\normalsize{10bp}{13bp}%
  \else%
    \@setfontsize\normalsize{8bp}{13bp}%
  \fi%
  \abovedisplayskip 5.5\p@ \@plus2\p@ \@minus0\p@
  \abovedisplayshortskip \z@ \@plus3\p@%
  \belowdisplayshortskip 3\p@ \@plus3\p@ \@minus3\p@%
  \belowdisplayskip \abovedisplayskip%
  \let\@listi\@listI}%
\newcommand{\textbaselineskip}{\baselineskip13bp}%
\normalsize\baselineskip13bp%
\newcommand\medsize{%
  \@setfontsize\small\@viipt{9}%
  \abovedisplayskip 5\p@ \@plus3\p@ \@minus4\p@
  \abovedisplayshortskip \z@ \@plus2\p@
  \belowdisplayshortskip 3\p@ \@plus2\p@ \@minus2\p@
  \def\@listi{%
    \leftmargin\leftmargini
    \topsep 4\p@ \@plus2\p@ \@minus2\p@
    \parsep 2\p@ \@plus\p@ \@minus\p@
    \itemsep \parsep}%
  \belowdisplayskip\abovedisplayskip}
\renewcommand\small{%
  \@setfontsize\small\@vpt{7}%
  \abovedisplayskip 5\p@ \@plus3\p@ \@minus4\p@
  \abovedisplayshortskip \z@ \@plus2\p@
  \belowdisplayshortskip 3\p@ \@plus2\p@ \@minus2\p@
  \def\@listi{%
    \leftmargin\leftmargini
    \topsep 4\p@ \@plus2\p@ \@minus2\p@
    \parsep 2\p@ \@plus\p@ \@minus\p@
    \itemsep \parsep}%
  \belowdisplayskip \abovedisplayskip}
\renewcommand\footnotesize{%
  \@setfontsize\footnotesize{7.5}{9}%
  \abovedisplayskip 5\p@ \@plus2\p@ \@minus4\p@
  \abovedisplayshortskip \z@ \@plus\p@
  \belowdisplayshortskip 3\p@ \@plus\p@ \@minus2\p@
  \def\@listi{%
    \leftmargin\leftmargini
    \topsep 3\p@ \@plus\p@ \@minus\p@
    \parsep 2\p@ \@plus\p@ \@minus\p@
    \itemsep \parsep}%
  \belowdisplayskip \abovedisplayskip}
\renewcommand\scriptsize{\@setfontsize\scriptsize\@ixpt\@ixpt}
\newcommand\scrisize{\@setfontsize\scrisize{9.3}{9}}
\renewcommand\tiny{\@setfontsize\tiny\@vpt\@vipt}
\renewcommand\large{\@setfontsize\large{12}{14}}
\newcommand\larg{\@setfontsize\larg{11}{13}}
\renewcommand\Large{\@setfontsize\Large{16}{18}}
\newcommand\fpe{\@setfontsize\fpe{19}{21}}
\renewcommand\LARGE{\@setfontsize\LARGE\@xviipt{22}}
\newcommand\rke{\@setfontsize\rke{10}{10}}
\newcommand\ke{\@setfontsize\ke{9}{10}}
\newcommand\lke{\@setfontsize\lke{8.4}{8.25}}
\newcommand\ffe{\@setfontsize\ffe{9}{12}}
\newcommand\adf{\@setfontsize\adf{10.3}{12}}
\newcommand\kes{\@setfontsize\kes{8}{9.5}}
\newcommand\bis{\@setfontsize\bis{9}{10}}
\newcommand\tdf{\@setfontsize\tdf{14}{16}}
\newcommand\svo{\@setfontsize\svo{14.5}{16}}
\renewcommand\huge{\@setfontsize\huge\@xxpt{25}}
\renewcommand\Huge{\@setfontsize\Huge\@xxvpt{30}}
%
%\DeclareMathSizes{24bp}{24}{16.06}{10}%
%\DeclareMathSizes{15bp}{15}{10}{5}%
%\DeclareMathSizes{9bp}{9}{6.02}{5.5}
%\DeclareMathSizes{8bp}{8}{5.35}{4.1}%
%\DeclareMathSizes{7.5bp}{7.5}{5.35}{4.1}%
%%
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
%% FONT DECLARATION Ends %%
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%

%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
%% FONTS / COLOR DECLARATION Starts %%
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
%%
\def\dummyalphabet{\vphantom{abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz0123456789}}
%
\sodef\letterspacetwty{}{.2em}{.4em plus1em}{.5em plus 1em minus1em }
%
\definecolor{Black}{gray}{0}
\definecolor{White}{cmyk}{0.0,0.0,0.0,0.0}
\definecolor{Tcolor}{cmyk}{1,0.8,0.0,0.0}%
\definecolor{Jcolor}{cmyk}{0.0,0.85,1,0.0}%
\definecolor{rgray}{cmyk}{0.0,0.0,0.0,0.4}%
\definecolor{lightgray}{cmyk}{0.0,0.0,0.0,0.2}
\definecolor{Blue}{cmyk}{1,0.77,0.0,0.0}
%
\gdef\@stix@font@defn{%
  %
  \def\infoboxfont{\fontfamily{tim}\fontsize{8}{8}\selectfont}%
  %
  \def\watermarkfont{\reset@font\fontfamily{\ffdefault}\fontsize{45}{45}\bfseries\selectfont}
  %
  \def\pagenumfont{\rmfamily\fontsize{7}{9}\bfseries\selectfont}%
  \def\cnmpagenumfont{\rmfamily\fontsize{7}{9}\selectfont\bfseries}%
%%%  \def\runningheadfont{\rmfamily\fontsize{7}{9}\scshape\selectfont}%
  \def\runningheadfont{\rmfamily\fontsize{7}{9}\selectfont}%New updations 19aug2016
  \def\runningfootfont{\rmfamily\fontsize{7}{9}\selectfont}%
  \def\titlepageheadfont{\rmfamily\fontsize{7}{9}\selectfont}%
  %
  \def\BRarttypefont{\reset@font\rmfamily\fontsize{18}{18}\fontseries{bl}\selectfont}%
  \def\pubheadfont{\reset@font\rmfamily\fontsize{7}{9}\fontseries{bl}\selectfont}%
  \def\arttypefont{\rmfamily\fontsize{9}{9}\fontseries{bl}\fontshape{tr}\selectfont}%
  \def\SParttypefont{\rmfamily\fontsize{9}{12}\fontseries{bl}\fontshape{tr}\selectfont}%
  \def\titlefont{\rmfamily\fontsize{18}{23}\bfseries\selectfont\leftskip\z@\rightskip\z@ plus1fil\let\mathbcal\titmathbcal}%
  \def\subtitlefont{\rmfamily\fontsize{16}{21}\bfseries\selectfont\leftskip\z@\rightskip\z@ plus1fil}%
  \def\Authorfont{\rmfamily\fontsize{12}{18}\selectfont\leftskip\z@\rightskip\z@ plus1fil}%
  \def\absheadfont{\hsize\abs@colii@hsize\rmfamily\fontsize{10}{10}\fontseries{b}\selectfont\bfseries\leftskip7\p@\rightskip\leftskip}% LN20FEB2016
  \def\legalstatementfont{\rmfamily\fontsize{7}{10}\selectfont\leftskip0\p@\rightskip\leftskip}%
    \def\BRsectionfont{\rmfamily\fontsize{10}{16}\fontseries{b}\fontshape{tr}\selectfont\leftskip\z@\rightskip\z@ plus1fil}%
  \def\sectionfont{\rmfamily\fontsize{12}{13}\fontseries{b}\fontshape{tr}\selectfont\leftskip\z@\rightskip\z@ plus1fil}%
  \def\subsectionfont{\rmfamily\fontsize{12}{13}\bfseries\selectfont\leftskip\z@\rightskip\z@ plus1fil}%
  \def\subsubsectionfont{\rmfamily\fontsize{12}{13}\bfseries\selectfont\leftskip\z@\rightskip\z@ plus1fil}%
  \def\paragraphfont{\rmfamily\fontsize{10.5}{13}\fontseries{bl}\selectfont}%
  \def\subparagraphfont{\rmfamily\fontsize{10}{13}\fontseries{bl}\selectfont}%
  \def\appsectionfont{\rmfamily\fontsize{10}{13}\fontseries{b}\fontshape{tr}\selectfont\leftskip\z@\rightskip\z@ plus1fil}%
  %
  \def\boxheadfont{\rmfamily\fontsize{10}{13}\fontseries{bl}\selectfont}
  \def\boxtitlefont{\rmfamily\fontsize{10}{13}\bfseries\selectfont}
  %
  \def\GnSabsfont{\rmfamily\fontsize{9}{15}\selectfont}%
  \def\GnSabsfootfont{\reset@font\rmfamily\fontsize{14}{0}\bfseries\selectfont}%
  %
  \def\suppinfofont{\noindent\rmfamily}%
  \def\suppinfoheadfont{\noindent\fontsize{10}{13}\fontseries{b}\fontshape{tr}\selectfont}%
  \def\suppinfocaptionfont{\noindent\rmfamily}%
  %
  \def\figurenumfont{\rmfamily\fontsize{9bp}{12}\fontseries{bl}\selectfont}%
  \def\figurecaptionfont{\rmfamily\fontsize{8.5bp}{12}\selectfont}
  \def\bwfiginfofont{\fontfamily{tim}\fontsize{10bp}{10bp}\selectfont}%
  %
  \def\tablenumfont{\rmfamily\fontsize{9bp}{11.5bp}\fontseries{bl}\selectfont}%
  \def\keypointheadfont{\reset@font\rmfamily\fontsize{10bp}{13bp}\fontseries{bl}\selectfont}%
  \def\tablecaptionfont{\rmfamily\fontsize{8.5bp}{12bp}\selectfont}
  \def\tablebodyfont{\rmfamily\fontsize{8.5bp}{11.5bp}\selectfont}
  \def\tablecolheadfont{\rmfamily\fontsize{8.5bp}{11.5bp}\selectfont\bfseries}
  \def\tablefootnotefont{\rmfamily\fontsize{7.5bp}{10.5bp}\selectfont}
  %
%%  \def\footnotetextfont{\rmfamily\fontsize{8bp}{10bp}\selectfont}
  %
  \def\listfont{\normalsize}%
  %
  \def\refheadfont{\fontsize{10}{13}\fontseries{b}\fontshape{tr}\selectfont}
  \def\reflistfont{\fontsize{8.5}{11.5}\selectfont}
  %
  \def\biographyheadfont{\fontsize{10}{13}\fontseries{b}\fontshape{tr}\selectfont}
  %
  \def\ackheadfont{\fontsize{10}{13}\selectfont\fontseries{b}\fontshape{tr}\selectfont}
  \def\addressfont{\hsize\abs@coli@hsize\rmfamily\fontsize{8}{11}\selectfont\leftskip\z@\rightskip\z@ plus1fil}%
  \def\corresfont{\hsize\abs@coli@hsize\rmfamily\fontsize{8}{11}\selectfont\leftskip\z@\rightskip\z@ plus1fil}%
  \def\FIfont{\hsize\abs@coli@hsize\rmfamily\fontsize{8}{11}\selectfont\leftskip\z@\rightskip\z@ plus1fil}%
  \def\JELfont{\hsize\abs@coli@hsize\rmfamily\fontsize{8}{11}\selectfont\leftskip\z@\rightskip\z@ plus1fil}%
  \def\keywordsheadfont{\hsize\abs@colii@hsize\rmfamily\fontsize{8}{8}\fontshape{tr}\selectfont\ifAbstractexist\leftskip7\p@\rightskip\leftskip\fi}%
  \def\abstractfont{\hsize\abs@colii@hsize\rmfamily\fontsize{10}{15}\selectfont\leftskip7\p@\rightskip\leftskip}%
  \def\keywordsfont{\rmfamily\fontsize{8}{13}\selectfont\ifAbstractexist\leftskip7\p@\rightskip\leftskip\fi}%
  %
}%
\gdef\@lato@font@defn{%
  %
  \def\infoboxfont{\fontfamily{tim}\fontsize{8}{8}\selectfont}%
  %
  \def\watermarkfont{\reset@font\fontfamily{\ffdefault}\fontsize{45}{45}\bfseries\selectfont}
  %
  \def\pagenumfont{\rmfamily\fontsize{7}{9}\bfseries\selectfont}%
  \def\cnmpagenumfont{\rmfamily\fontsize{7}{9}\selectfont\bfseries}%
%%%  \def\runningheadfont{\rmfamily\fontsize{7}{9}\scshape\selectfont}%
  \def\runningheadfont{\rmfamily\fontsize{7}{9}\selectfont}%New updations 19aug2016
  \def\runningfootfont{\rmfamily\fontsize{7}{9}\selectfont}%
  \def\titlepageheadfont{\rmfamily\fontsize{7}{9}\selectfont}%
  %
  \def\BRarttypefont{\reset@font\rmfamily\fontsize{18}{18}\fontseries{bl}\selectfont}%
  \def\pubheadfont{\reset@font\rmfamily\fontsize{7}{9}\fontseries{bl}\selectfont}%
  \def\arttypefont{\rmfamily\fontsize{9}{9}\fontseries{bl}\fontshape{tr}\selectfont}%
  \def\SParttypefont{\rmfamily\fontsize{9}{12}\fontseries{bl}\fontshape{tr}\selectfont}%
  \def\titlefont{\rmfamily\fontsize{18}{23}\bfseries\selectfont\leftskip\z@\rightskip\z@ plus1fil\let\mathbcal\titmathbcal}%
  \def\subtitlefont{\rmfamily\fontsize{16}{21}\bfseries\selectfont\leftskip\z@\rightskip\z@ plus1fil}%
  \def\Authorfont{\rmfamily\fontsize{12}{18}\selectfont\bfseries\leftskip\z@\rightskip\z@ plus1fil}%
  \def\addressfont{\hsize\abs@coli@hsize\rmfamily\fontsize{7}{10}\selectfont\leftskip\z@\rightskip\z@ plus1fil}%
  \def\corresfont{\hsize\abs@coli@hsize\rmfamily\fontsize{7}{10}\selectfont\leftskip\z@\rightskip\z@ plus1fil}%
  %
  \def\FIfont{\hsize\abs@coli@hsize\rmfamily\fontsize{7}{10}\selectfont\leftskip\z@\rightskip\z@ plus1fil}%
  \def\JELfont{\hsize\abs@coli@hsize\rmfamily\fontsize{7}{10}\selectfont\leftskip\z@\rightskip\z@ plus1fil}%
  \def\abstractfont{\hsize\abs@colii@hsize\rmfamily\fontsize{8}{13}\selectfont\leftskip7\p@\rightskip\leftskip}%
  \def\keywordsheadfont{\hsize\abs@colii@hsize\rmfamily\fontsize{7}{7}\fontshape{tr}\selectfont\ifAbstractexist\leftskip7\p@\rightskip\leftskip\fi}%
  \def\absheadfont{\hsize\abs@colii@hsize\rmfamily\fontsize{10}{10}\fontseries{b}\selectfont\bfseries\leftskip7\p@\rightskip\leftskip}% LN20FEB2016
  \def\keywordsfont{\rmfamily\fontsize{8}{13}\selectfont\ifAbstractexist\leftskip7\p@\rightskip\leftskip\fi}%
  \def\legalstatementfont{\rmfamily\fontsize{7}{10}\selectfont\leftskip0\p@\rightskip\leftskip}%
  %
  \def\BRsectionfont{\rmfamily\fontsize{10}{16}\fontseries{b}\fontshape{tr}\selectfont\leftskip\z@\rightskip\z@ plus1fil}%
  \def\sectionfont{\rmfamily\fontsize{10}{13}\fontseries{b}\fontshape{tr}\selectfont\leftskip\z@\rightskip\z@ plus1fil}%
  \def\subsectionfont{\rmfamily\fontsize{10}{14}\bfseries\selectfont\leftskip\z@\rightskip\z@ plus1fil}%
  \def\subsubsectionfont{\rmfamily\fontsize{9}{12.5}\bfseries\selectfont\leftskip\z@\rightskip\z@ plus1fil}%
  \def\paragraphfont{\rmfamily\fontsize{8.5}{13}\fontseries{bl}\selectfont}%
  \def\subparagraphfont{\rmfamily\fontsize{8.5}{13}\fontseries{bl}\selectfont}%
  \def\appsectionfont{\rmfamily\fontsize{8}{11}\fontseries{b}\fontshape{tr}\selectfont\leftskip\z@\rightskip\z@ plus1fil}%
  %
  \def\boxheadfont{\rmfamily\fontsize{8}{10}\fontseries{bl}\selectfont}
  \def\boxtitlefont{\rmfamily\fontsize{8}{10}\bfseries\selectfont}
  %
  \def\GnSabsfont{\rmfamily\fontsize{9}{15}\selectfont}%
  \def\GnSabsfootfont{\reset@font\rmfamily\fontsize{14}{0}\bfseries\selectfont}%
  %
  \def\suppinfofont{\noindent\rmfamily}%
  \def\suppinfoheadfont{\noindent\fontsize{8}{13}\fontseries{b}\fontshape{tr}\selectfont}%
  \def\suppinfocaptionfont{\noindent\rmfamily}%
  %
  \def\figurenumfont{\rmfamily\fontsize{7bp}{9}\fontseries{bl}\selectfont}%
  \def\figurecaptionfont{\rmfamily\fontsize{8bp}{11}\selectfont}
  \def\bwfiginfofont{\fontfamily{tim}\fontsize{10bp}{10bp}\selectfont}%
  %
  \def\tablenumfont{\rmfamily\fontsize{7bp}{9bp}\fontseries{bl}\selectfont}%
  \def\keypointheadfont{\reset@font\rmfamily\fontsize{9bp}{11bp}\fontseries{bl}\selectfont}%
  \def\tablecaptionfont{\rmfamily\fontsize{8bp}{9bp}\selectfont}
  \def\tablebodyfont{\rmfamily\fontsize{7.5bp}{9bp}\selectfont}
  \def\tablecolheadfont{\rmfamily\fontsize{7.5bp}{9bp}\selectfont\bfseries}
  \def\tablefootnotefont{\rmfamily\fontsize{7.5bp}{9bp}\selectfont}
  %
%%  \def\footnotetextfont{\rmfamily\fontsize{8bp}{10bp}\selectfont}
  %
  \def\listfont{\normalsize}%
  %
  \def\refheadfont{\fontsize{8}{10}\fontseries{b}\fontshape{tr}\selectfont}
  \def\reflistfont{\fontsize{7.5}{10}\selectfont}
  %
  \def\biographyheadfont{\fontsize{8}{10}\fontseries{b}\fontshape{tr}\selectfont}
  %
  \def\ackheadfont{\fontsize{8}{9}\selectfont\fontseries{b}\fontshape{tr}\selectfont}
  %
}%
%%
\gdef\largedesign@lato@font{\@lato@font@defn}%
%%
\gdef\largedesign@stix@font{\@stix@font@defn%
}%
%%
\gdef\smalldesign@lato@font{\@lato@font@defn}%
%%
\gdef\smalldesign@stix@font{\@stix@font@defn}%


    \largedesign@stix@font%

\def\listfont{\reset@font\fontfamily{\rmdefault}\normalsize}%
\def\tablistfont{\tablebodyfont}% 

%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
%% article front matter elements %%
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%

%% article opening Running headers %%

\def\artoprunningheaders{\vbox{\OPRHfont\raggedright%
\@pubname\par%
\@jname\par%
Volume\ \@jvol, Article ID\ \@artid, \thepage~pages\par%
%%\if@hyperrefon\urlstyle{same}\burlalt{http://dx.doi.org/\@doi}{http://dx.doi.org/\@doi}\else{http://dx.doi.org/\@doi}\fi% this line is not required in the output
}}

\def\nullartoprunningheaders{\vbox{\OPRHfont\raggedright%
\phantom{\@pubname}\par%
\phantom{\@jname}\par%
\phantom{Volume\ \@jvol, Article ID\ \@artid, \thepage}\par%
%%\if@hyperrefon\urlstyle{same}\burlalt{http://dx.doi.org/\@doi}{http://dx.doi.org/\@doi}\else{http://dx.doi.org/\@doi}\fi%
}}

%% article category %%

\def\@DocHead{}%
\def\articletype#1{\gdef\@DocHead{\hsize=\textwidth\arttypefont\bfseries\uline{\uppercase{#1}}}}%

%% article title %%

\def\titlemark#1{\gdef\@titlemark{#1}}%
\gdef\@titlemark{}%

%%\def\titlefootnotemark#1{\textsuperscript{\hbox{\reset@font\fontsize{12.5}{0}\selectfont$\@fnsymbol{#1}$}}}%
\def\titlefootnotemark#1{\textsuperscript{$\@fnsymbol{#1}$}}%

\def\title#1{\gdef\@title{\hsize=\textwidth%
\titlefont#1\addcontentsline{toc}{chapter}{#1}% for bookmarks
}}%
\def\shrttitle#1{\gdef\@shrttitle{#1}}\shrttitle{}%

%% article authors %%

\let\sep\@empty%
\let\authorsep\@empty%
\let\emailsep\@empty%

\newcount\aucount%
\newcount\corrauthcount%

%%\def\au@and{\unskip\advance\punctcount by -1, }%
\def\au@and{\ifnum\punctcount=1\else\ifnum\punctcount=2\ and\advance\punctcount by -1\else\advance\punctcount by -1 \fi \fi}%
\def\artauthors{}

\newif\if@auemail%

\newcommand{\thecorrauthcount}{\the\corrauthcount}%
\newcommand{\theaucount}{\the\aucount}%
\newcommand{\thefnmCnt}{\the\fnmCnt}%

\newcount\authfncnt%
\authfncnt=0%

\newcount\authfnTmpCnt%
\authfnTmpCnt=1%
%
\gdef\StoreAuthFnText#1#2{%
\edef\GetRoman{\romannumeral#1}%
\expandafter\gdef\csname\GetRoman StoreAuthFnTxt\endcsname{#2}%
}%
%
\def\authfndefns{%
\loop\ifnum\authfncnt>0%
   \csname\romannumeral\authfnTmpCnt StoreAuthFnTxt\endcsname\par%
   \StepDownCounter{\authfncnt}%
   \StepUpCounter{\authfnTmpCnt}%
\repeat}%


\def\author{\advance\aucount\@ne%
%%\let\footnotetext\authfootnotetext%
\@ifstar\@@corrauthor\@@author}%

\newcommand{\@@corrauthor}[2][]{\g@addto@macro\artauthors{\undefined%
\renewcommand{\email}[1]{}%
\hsize=\textwidth\raggedright%
\global\advance\aucount\@ne%%
\global\advance\corrauthcount\@ne%%
\def\@currentlabel{#2}
\jmkLabel{corrauth\thecorrauthcount}%
\Authorfont%
\def\baselinestretch{1}%
\authorsep{#2\ifnum\aucount=2\else\ifnum\punctcount=2,\else\ifnum\punctcount=1\relax\else\ifnum\punctcount=0\relax\else,\fi\fi\fi\fi}%
\unskip\ifx#1\empty\else\textsuperscript{\smash{{%
\@for\@@affmark:=#1\do{\edef\affnum{\@ifundefined{X@\@@affmark}{1}{\jmkRef{\@@affmark}}}%
\unskip\sep\affnum\let\sep=,}}}}\fi%
\def\authorsep{\au@and~}%
\global\let\sep\@empty%
}}%

\newcommand\fnm[1]{{\StepUpCounter{\fnmCnt}#1\addtocontents{aq}{\protect{\bfseries Author\ \thefnmCnt}\hfill\protect\break Given Names: #1\hfill\protect\break}}}%
\newcommand\sur[1]{{#1\addtocontents{aq}{Last Name: #1\protect\par}}}%

\newbox\aufootnotemark%

\newbox\authmarkbox%
\newif\ifGApresent%

\def\@filtername#1#2\@nil{#1.\ }%
\def\filtername#1 #2\@nil{%
\@filtername#1\@nil #2}%
\newcommand{\@@author}[2][]{%
\def\temp{#1}\g@addto@macro\artauthors{%
\def\footnotemark##1{%
\affilmarkdefns%
\global\setbox\authmarkbox\hbox{\reset@font\fontfamily{\rmdefault}\fontsize{8.75pt}{0}\selectfont{##1}}}%
\ifnum\aucount=1%
    \global\@auemailtrue%
    \else%
    \global\@auemailfalse%
    \fi%
    \Authorfont%\baselineskip=12pt%
    \def\baselinestretch{1}%
   \authorsep{#2}\unskip\ifx\temp\@empty%
      \@ifundefined{Xname@0}%
        {\expandafter\xdef\csname Xname@0\endcsname{\filtername#2\@nil}}%
        {\expandafter\protected@xdef\csname Xname@0\endcsname%
             {\csname Xname@0\endcsname,\ \filtername#2\@nil}}%
   \else%
   \textsuperscript{\smash{{%
      \@for\@@affmark:=#1\do{\edef\affnum{\@ifundefined{X@\@@affmark}{1}{\jmkRef{\@@affmark}}}%
      \@ifundefined{Xname@\@@affmark}%
        {\expandafter\xdef\csname Xname@\@@affmark\endcsname{\filtername#2\@nil}}%
        {\expandafter\protected@xdef\csname Xname@\@@affmark\endcsname%
             {\csname Xname@\@@affmark\endcsname,\ \filtername#2\@nil}}%
     \unskip\sep\ifnum\addcount=1\else\affnum\fi\let\sep=,}}}\unhbox\authmarkbox}\fi%
    \gdef\authorsep{\enspace|\enspace}%%% 
    \global\let\sep\@empty\global\let\@corref\@empty%
}}%

%%\if@purexml\else%
%
\newcounter{affn}%
\renewcommand\theaffn{\arabic{affn}}%
%
\def\jmkaddress{}%
\def\miscjmkaddress{}%
\def\addsep{\par\vskip0pt}%
%
\newcount\addcount% To check the count of address
%
\def\address{\advance\addcount\@ne\@ifstar\@@corraddress\@@address}%
%
\newcommand{\@@corraddress}[2][]{\gdef\@corresinfo{#2}}%
%
\newcommand{\@@address}[2][]{\def\temp{#1}%
\g@addto@macro\jmkaddress{\hsize=\textwidth%
\def\baselinestretch{1}%
\stepcounter{affn}%
\xdef\@currentlabel{\theaffn}%
\jmkLabel{#1}%
\addressfont\ifx#1\empty\else\@hangfrom{\textsuperscript{\smash{\theaffn}}}\fi%
#2\vphantom{Thy}\par%
}}%
%%\fi%

%% email details %%

\newcount\emailcount%
\newcount\punctcount%

%\def\jmkemail{}%
%\def\emailand{\ and\ }%
%\def\@emailsep{\unskip\advance\emailcount by -1\emailand}%

%\newcommand{\email}[1]{%%\global\advance\emailcount\@ne%
%\let\emailcount\corrauthcount%
%\g@addto@macro\jmkemail{%
%\def\emailau{\jmkRef{corrauth\thecorrauthcount};}%
%\emailsep{\emailau\ #1}\def\emailsep{\@emailsep}}}%

\newcommand{\email}[1]{Email: #1}%

%
%% Correspondence details
%

%\def\corresinfotext{Correspondence should be addressed to }%
%\newcommand{\corresinfo}{{\hsize=\textwidth\corresfont\corresinfotext\jmkemail\par}}%

\gdef\@corresinfo{}%
\def\corres#1{\gdef\@corresinfo{#1}}%

\newcommand{\corresinfo}{{\corresfont\baselineskip11pt\textbf{Correspondence}\par \@corresinfo\par}}%

\gdef\@presentaddress{}%
\def\presentaddress#1{\gdef\@presentaddress{\hsize=\textwidth\corresfont\baselineskip11pt\textbf{Present Address}\par #1}}%

%
\def\received#1{\gdef\@received{Received #1;}}\gdef\@received{}%
\def\revised#1{\gdef\@revised{Revised #1;}}\gdef\@revised{}%
\def\accepted#1{\gdef\@accepted{Accepted #1}}\gdef\@accepted{}%
\def\published#1{\gdef\@published{Published #1}}\gdef\@published{}%
   \def\xmlreceived{\gdef\@received{\ifnum\artActypcnt=1\relax Received:\ref{MSSreceiveddate}\ReceivedMONTH\nobreakspace{}\kern.5pt\ReceivedYEAR,\else Received:\ref{MSSreceiveddate}\nobreakspace{}\kern.5pt\ReceivedDATE\nobreakspace{}\kern.5pt\ReceivedMONTH\nobreakspace{}\kern.5pt\ReceivedYEAR\fi}}\gdef\@received{}%
   \def\xmlrevised{\gdef\@revised{Revised:\ref{MSSrevised}\nobreakspace{}\kern.5pt\RevisedDATE\nobreakspace{}\kern.5pt\RevisedMONTH\nobreakspace{}\kern.5pt\RevisedYEAR}}\gdef\@revised{}%
   \def\xmlaccepted{\gdef\@accepted{\ifnum\artActypcnt=1\relax in final form\ref{ACCdate}\AccMONTH\nobreakspace{}\kern.5pt\AccYEAR\else Accepted:\ref{ACCdate}\nobreakspace{}\kern.5pt\AccDATE\nobreakspace{}\kern.5pt\AccMONTH\nobreakspace{}\kern.5pt\AccYEAR\fi}}\gdef\@accepted{}%
   \def\xmlacceptedonline{\gdef\@acceptedonline{Accepted article online\ref{PUBaccptdate}\nobreakspace{}\kern.5pt\AccDATEi\nobreakspace{}\kern.5pt\AccMONTHi\nobreakspace{}\kern.5pt\AccYEARi}}\gdef\@acceptedonline{}%
   \def\xmlpubdate{\gdef\@pubdate{Published on:\ref{PUBEVdate}\nobreakspace{}\kern.5pt\PubDATE\nobreakspace{}\kern.5pt\PubMONTH\nobreakspace{}\kern.5pt\PubYEAR}}\gdef\@pubdate{}%

\newif\ifarticletype\global\articletypefalse

\def\pagenumberalign#1{\hbox to 22.5\p@{#1}}%
\def\rhvertbar{\smash{\raisebox{-2\p@}{\rule{.5\p@}{10\p@}}}}%
\def\historydatesvertbar{\hspace*{7\p@}\smash{\raisebox{-4\p@}{\rule{.5\p@}{12\p@}}}\hspace*{7\p@}}%
\def\foot@pagenumber@align#1{\hbox to 15.75\p@{#1}}%
\def\foot@vertbar{\hspace*{7\p@}\smash{\raisebox{0\p@}{\rule{.5\p@}{9.25\p@}}}\hspace*{7\p@}}%
\def\authorseprule#1{\gdef\author@seprule{\hspace*{7\p@}#1\hspace*{7\p@}}}\authorseprule{\smash{\raisebox{.1\p@}{\hbox{\rule{.5\p@}{8.5\p@}}}}}%
%
\def\thepagedef{{\pagenumfont\thepage}}%

\def\headfootrule#1{\gdef\@headfootrule{#1}}\headfootrule{{\rule{\textwidth}{.5\p@}}}%

\def\historykern#1{\gdef\history@kern{#1}}\historykern{\nobreakspace{}\kern.5pt}
\def\@dummy@received{\textcolor{red}{Received:\history@kern{}00\history@kern{}Month\history@kern{}0000}}%
\def\@dummy@revised{\textcolor{red}{Revised:\history@kern{}00\history@kern{}Month\history@kern{}0000}}%
\def\@dummy@accepted{\textcolor{red}{Accepted:\history@kern{}00\history@kern{}Month\history@kern{}0000}}%
\def\@dummy@pubdate{\textcolor{red}{Published\history@kern{}on:\history@kern{}00\history@kern{}Month\history@kern{}0000}}%
\def\historydates#1{\gdef\@history@dates{#1}}%
\historydates{{\titlepageheadfont%
  \ifx\@received\@empty\@dummy@received\else\@received\fi\historydatesvertbar%
  \ifx\@revised\@empty\@dummy@revised\else\@revised\fi\historydatesvertbar%
  \ifx\@accepted\@empty\@dummy@accepted\else\@accepted\fi%\historydatesvertbar%
%  \ifx\@pubdate\@empty\@dummy@pubdate\else\@pubdate\fi%
}}%
%
\def\doiheadtext#1{\gdef\@DOI@text{#1}}\doiheadtext{DOI: xxx/xxxx\nobreakspace{}}%
\def\head@titlepage@def#1#2{\vbox{%
  \hbox to \textwidth{#1\dummyalphabet}\par\vspace*{2.5\p@}%
  \@headfootrule\par\vspace*{9\p@}%
  \smash{{\titlepageheadfont\@DOI@text#2}}\par\vspace*{9\p@}%
  \vspace*{-2.5\p@}%
%  \smash{\hbox to \textwidth{\hfill\rhlogo}}\par%
}}%
%
\newskip\foot@titlepage@raise@skip\global\foot@titlepage@raise@skip23\p@%

\def\oddhead@titlepage@info{\head@titlepage@def{\@history@dates\hfill}{\@doi}}%
\def\evenhead@titlepage@info{\oddhead@titlepage@info}%
%
%\def\oddfoot@titlepage@info{\foot@titlepage@def{\runningfooter}}%
%\def\evenfoot@titlepage@info{\oddfoot@titlepage@info}%
%
\def\ps@titlepage{%
%  \def\@oddfoot{\oddfoot@titlepage@info}%
 % \def\@evenfoot{\evenfoot@titlepage@info}%
  \def\@oddhead{\oddhead@titlepage@info}%
  \def\@evenhead{\evenhead@titlepage@info}%
  \let\@mkboth\markboth%
}%


%% Abstract %%

%% Article Abstract
%% Author name in Running Head

\newcount\lastauthorcnt

\newif\if@suppimage \global\@suppimagefalse
\newif\ifAbstractexist%
\global\Abstractexistfalse%
%% Article Abstract
\renewcommand\abstract[2][]{\global\Abstractexisttrue%
  \gdef\@abstract{%
    \setlength{\parindent}{\z@}%
    \vspace*{8.5\p@}%
    \rightskip0pt\raggedright\hspace*{7\p@}\hbox{\reset@font\abstractfont{\absheadfont#1}}\par\vskip3pt% LN20feb2016
    {\abstractfont\baselineskip15pt\ifFWabstract\hsize\textwidth\fi#2\par\vspace*{0\p@}}%
    \addcontentsline{toc}{section}{\abstractname}%
}}%\abstract{}%

%% Correspondence
\def\correspondencename{Correspondence}
\def\correspondence#1{%
  \gdef\@correspondence{%
    \par\vspace*{3\p@}%
    {\corresfont\correspondencename\par}%
    {\corresfont#1\par}%
  }%
}\correspondence{}%

%% Funding Information
%%\def\fundingNumber#1{#1.}%
%%\def\fundingAgency#1{#1,\space}%
\newcount\fundinfocnt%
\def\fundagenandnum{}%
%
\newif\iffundinginfo%
%
%%\def\fundingAgency#1{\textbf{#1}\g@addto@macro\fundagenandnum{\global\advance\fundinfocnt by 1\relax#1\ifnum\fundinfocnt=1,\ \fi}}%
%%\def\fundingNumber#1{\textit{#1}\g@addto@macro\fundagenandnum{#1.\par\global\advance\fundinfocnt by -1\relax}}%
\def\fundingAgency#1{\textbf{#1}\g@addto@macro\fundagenandnum{#1,\ }}%
\def\fundingNumber#1{\textit{#1}\g@addto@macro\fundagenandnum{#1.\ }}%
%
\newwrite\@finfo%
\openout\@finfo=\jobname.finfo%
%
\AtEndDocument{\immediate\write\@finfo{\ifx\fundagenandnum\@empty\else\string\textbf{Funding Information}\par\fi%
\fundagenandnum}}%
%
\newcount\fundinginfocount\fundinginfocount0%
\newcount\commafundinginfocount\commafundinginfocount0%
\newcount\fundinginfotempcount\fundinginfotempcount0%
\newcount\tempfundinginfocount\tempfundinginfocount0%
%
\def\fundingInfo#1{%
  \expandafter\protected@xdef\csname fundinginfo\the\fundinginfocount\endcsname{#1}%
  \global\advance\fundinginfocount1%
}%
%
\def\fundinginfohead#1{\gdef\@fundinginfo@head{#1}}\fundinginfohead{Funding Information}%
\def\fundinginfoheadtext#1{\gdef\@fundinginfo@head@text{#1}}\fundinginfoheadtext{This research was supported by the }%
\gdef\@fundinginfo{{%
  \reset@font\FIfont%
  \ifnum\fundinginfocount<1\else%
  \par\vspace*{3\p@}%
  \@fundinginfo@head\par%
  \@fundinginfo@head@text%
  \global\tempfundinginfocount\fundinginfocount%
  \global\advance\tempfundinginfocount-1%
  \global\commafundinginfocount\tempfundinginfocount%
  \global\advance\commafundinginfocount-1%
  \ifnum\fundinginfocount=1%
    \ignorespaces\csname fundinginfo0\endcsname%
  \else%
    \@whilenum\fundinginfotempcount<\tempfundinginfocount\do{%
      \ignorespaces\csname fundinginfo\the\fundinginfotempcount\endcsname\ %
      \global\advance\fundinginfotempcount1%
    }%
    \csname fundinginfo\the\fundinginfotempcount\endcsname\par%
  \fi%
  \fi%
\vfill}}%

%% JEL Classification
\newcount\JELinfocount\JELinfocount0%
\newcount\commaJELinfocount\commaJELinfocount0%
\newcount\JELinfotempcount\JELinfotempcount0%
\newcount\tempJELinfocount\tempJELinfocount0%
%
\def\JELinfo#1{%
  \expandafter\protected@xdef\csname JELinfo\the\JELinfocount\endcsname{#1}%
  \global\advance\JELinfocount1%
}%
%
\def\JELinfohead#1{\gdef\@JELinfo@head{#1}}\JELinfohead{JEL Classification:\nobreakspace{}}%
\gdef\@JELinfo{{%
  \ifnum\JELinfocount<1\else%
  \reset@font\JELfont%
  \par\vspace*{3\p@}%
  \@JELinfo@head%
  \global\tempJELinfocount\JELinfocount%
  \global\advance\tempJELinfocount-1%
  \global\commaJELinfocount\tempJELinfocount%
  \global\advance\commaJELinfocount-1%
  \ifnum\JELinfocount=1%
    \ignorespaces\csname JELinfo0\endcsname%
  \else%
    \@whilenum\JELinfotempcount<\tempJELinfocount\do{%
      \ignorespaces\csname JELinfo\the\JELinfotempcount\endcsname\ %
      \global\advance\JELinfotempcount1%
    }%
    \csname JELinfo\the\JELinfotempcount\endcsname\par\vspace*{-\baselineskip}%
  \fi%
  \fi%
\vfill}}%

%%
\newbox\htftbox%
\newdimen\ovsize%
\newdimen\oovsize%
\newdimen\FreePageSpace%
\newdimen\FreePageSpaceTest%
\newskip\fadjskip\fadjskip=0pt%
\newskip\adjustskip\adjustskip=0pc%
\newskip\titleskip%

\gdef\ComputeFreeSpaceOnPage{%
\par%
\ifdim\pagetotal=0pt%
   \global\FreePageSpace=\vsize%
   \global\advance\FreePageSpace by -\adjustskip%
\else%
   \FreePageSpace=\pagegoal%
  \ifvoid\footins%
     \global\advance\FreePageSpace by -\pagetotal%
     \global\advance\FreePageSpace by -\adjustskip%
  \else%
    \setbox3=\vbox{\unvbox\footins}%
    \htftbox=\ht3%
    \advance\htftbox by \dp3%
    \global\advance\FreePageSpace by -\pagetotal%
    \global\advance\FreePageSpace by -\htftbox%
    \global\advance\FreePageSpace by -\adjustskip%
  \fi%
\fi%
}%
%%

\definecolor{tenpercent}{cmyk}{0,0,0,0.10}
\definecolor{thirtyfivepercent}{cmyk}{0,0,0,0.35}
\definecolor{sixtyfivepercent}{cmyk}{0,0,0,0.65}
\definecolor{seventyfivepercent}{cmyk}{0,0,0,0.75}
%

%\newskip\abs@coli@hsize\abs@coli@hsize12pc%
%\newskip\abs@colii@hsize\abs@colii@hsize29pc%


%
\newbox\abs@boxa%
\newbox\abs@boxb%
\newbox\abs@boxc%
%
\newdimen\abs@dima%
\newdimen\abs@dimb%
\newdimen\abs@dimc%
%
\def\absCOvrule{\vrule width0.5pt}%
\def\authCOvrule{{\color{tenpercent}\vrule width\abs@colii@hsize}}%

\def\FWauthCOvrule{{\color{tenpercent}\vrule width\textwidth}}%

%
\long\def\absworkarea#1#2{%
  \setbox\abs@boxa\vbox{\hsize\abs@coli@hsize#1\dummyalphabet}%
  \abs@dima=\ht\abs@boxa%
  \advance\abs@dima by \dp\abs@boxa%
  \advance\abs@dima by -4.5\p@%
  \setbox\abs@boxb\vbox{\hsize\abs@colii@hsize#2\dummyalphabet}%
  \abs@dimb=\ht\abs@boxb%
  \advance\abs@dimb by \dp\abs@boxb%
  \ComputeFreeSpaceOnPage%
  \stripsep\z@%
  \ifdim\abs@dimb>\FreePageSpace%
    \setbox8=\vbox{\unvbox\abs@boxb}%
    \advance\FreePageSpace by -\@firstpage@foot@height%
    %\advance\FreePageSpace by \baselineskip%
    \setbox1=\vsplit8 to \FreePageSpace%
    \setbox1=\vbox{\unvbox1}%
    \setbox2=\vbox{\unvbox8}%
    \ifdim\abs@dima>\FreePageSpace%
      \setbox7=\vbox{\unvbox\abs@boxa}%
      %\advance\FreePageSpace by -\@firstpage@foot@height%
      %\advance\FreePageSpace by \baselineskip%
      \setbox3=\vsplit7 to \FreePageSpace%
      \setbox3=\vbox{\unvbox3}%
      \setbox4=\vbox{\unvbox7}%
    \fi%
    \gdef\abs@dimchk{\ifdim\ht3>\ht1\ht3\else\ht1\fi}%
    \parbox{\textwidth}{%
      \begin{minipage}[t]{\abs@coli@hsize}%
      \leavevmode\vbox to \abs@dimchk{\ifdim\abs@dima>\FreePageSpace\copy3\else\unvbox\abs@boxa\fi\vfill}%
      \end{minipage}\hfill%
      \hspace*{7\p@}\absCOvrule\hspace*{7\p@}\authCOvrule%
      \begin{minipage}[t]{\abs@colii@hsize}%
      \leavevmode\hspace*{-\textwidth}\vbox to \abs@dimchk{\unvbox1\vfill}%
      \end{minipage}%
      \vspace*{\@firstpage@foot@height}%
    }%\end{strip}%
    \clearpage%\vfill\eject%
    \loop%
    \ifdim\ht2>\textheight%
    \ovsize=\vsize%
    \setbox1=\vsplit2 to \ovsize%
    \setbox1=\vbox{\unvbox1}%
    \setbox3=\vsplit4 to \ovsize%
    \setbox3=\vbox{\unvbox3}%
    %\ifdim\ht4>\textheight%
    %\oovsize=\vsize%
    %\setbox3=\vsplit4 to \oovsize%
    %\setbox3=\vbox{\unvbox3}%
     \parbox{\textwidth}{%
      \begin{minipage}[t]{\abs@coli@hsize}%
      \leavevmode\vbox{\unvbox3\vfill}%
      \end{minipage}\hfill%
      \hspace*{7\p@}\absCOvrule\hspace*{7\p@}\authCOvrule%
      \begin{minipage}[t]{\abs@colii@hsize}%
      \leavevmode\hspace*{-\textwidth}\vbox{\vspace*{7\p@}\unvbox1\vspace*{7\p@}}%
      \end{minipage}%
   }%
    \clearpage%
    \repeat%
    \gdef\abs@dimchk{\ifdim\ht4>\ht2\ht4\else\ht2\fi}%
     \parbox{\textwidth}{%
      \begin{minipage}[t]{\abs@coli@hsize}%
      \leavevmode\vbox to \abs@dimchk{\copy4\vfill}%
      \end{minipage}
      \hfill%
      \hspace*{7\p@}\absCOvrule\hspace*{7\p@}\authCOvrule%
      \begin{minipage}[t]{\abs@colii@hsize}%
      \leavevmode\hspace*{-\textwidth}\vbox to \abs@dimchk{\unvbox2\vfill}%
      \end{minipage}%
      \vspace*{2pc}%
      \vskip\titleskip%
    }%
  \else%
    \ifdim\abs@dima>\FreePageSpace%
      \setbox8=\vbox{\unvbox\abs@boxa}%
      \advance\FreePageSpace by -\@firstpage@foot@height%
      %\advance\FreePageSpace by \baselineskip%
      \setbox1=\vsplit8 to \FreePageSpace%
      \setbox1=\vbox{\unvbox1}%
      \setbox2=\vbox{\unvbox8}%
       \parbox{\textwidth}{%%
        \begin{minipage}[t]{\abs@coli@hsize}%
        \leavevmode\vbox{\copy1\vfill}%
        \end{minipage}\hfill%
        \hspace*{7\p@}\absCOvrule\hspace*{7\p@}\authCOvrule%
        \begin{minipage}[t]{\abs@colii@hsize}%
        \leavevmode\hspace*{-\textwidth}\vbox to \ht1{\unvbox\abs@boxb\vfill}%
        \end{minipage}%
        \vspace*{\@firstpage@foot@height}%
      }%
      \clearpage%\vfill\eject%
      \loop\ifdim\ht2>\textheight%
      \ovsize=\vsize%
      \setbox1=\vsplit2 to \ovsize%
      \setbox1=\vbox{\unvbox1}%
       \parbox{\textwidth}{%%
        \begin{minipage}[t]{\abs@coli@hsize}%
        \leavevmode\vbox{\unvbox1\vfill}%
        \end{minipage}\hfill%
        \hspace*{7\p@}\absCOvrule\hspace*{7\p@}\authCOvrule%
        \begin{minipage}[t]{\abs@colii@hsize}%
        \leavevmode\hspace*{-\textwidth}\vbox{\vspace*{7\p@}\unvbox1\vspace*{7\p@}}%
        \end{minipage}%
      }%
      \clearpage%
      \repeat%
       \parbox{\textwidth}{%
        \begin{minipage}[t]{\abs@coli@hsize}%
        \leavevmode\vbox{\unvbox2\vfill}%
        \end{minipage}
        \hfill%
        \hspace*{7\p@}\absCOvrule\hspace*{7\p@}\authCOvrule%
        \begin{minipage}[t]{\abs@colii@hsize}%
        \leavevmode\hspace*{-\textwidth}\vbox{\vspace*{7\p@}\unvbox2\vspace*{-7\p@}}%
        \end{minipage}%
        \vspace*{2pc}%
        \vskip\titleskip%
      }%
    \else%
      \gdef\abs@dimchk{\ifdim\abs@dima>\abs@dimb\abs@dima\else\abs@dimb\fi}%
       \parbox{\textwidth}{%%
        \begin{minipage}[t]{\abs@coli@hsize}%
        \leavevmode\vbox to \abs@dimchk{\copy\abs@boxa\vfill}%
        \end{minipage}\hfill%
        \hspace*{7\p@}\absCOvrule\hspace*{7\p@}\authCOvrule%
        \begin{minipage}[t]{\abs@colii@hsize}%
        \leavevmode\hspace*{-\textwidth}\vbox to \abs@dimchk{\unvbox\abs@boxb\vfill}%
        \end{minipage}%
        \vspace*{2pc}%
        \vskip\titleskip%
      }%
    \fi%
  \fi%
%%%  \ifx\@titlenotes\@empty\else\global\thankstrue\footnotetext{\@titlenotes\par\vspace*{-\baselineskip}}\fi%
}%

\long\def\FWabsworkarea#1#2{%
%  \setbox\abs@boxa\vbox{\hsize\abs@coli@hsize#1\dummyalphabet}%
%  \abs@dima=\ht\abs@boxa%
%  \advance\abs@dima by \dp\abs@boxa%
%  \advance\abs@dima by -4.5\p@%
  \setbox\abs@boxb\vbox{\hsize\textwidth#2\dummyalphabet}%
  \abs@dimb=\ht\abs@boxb%
  \advance\abs@dimb by \dp\abs@boxb%
  \ComputeFreeSpaceOnPage%
  \stripsep\z@%
  %\ifx\@titlenotes\@empty\else\footnotetext{\textsuperscript{1}\@titlenotes\par\vspace*{-2\baselineskip}}\par\vspace*{-2\baselineskip}\fi%
%%  \ifx\@fundinginfo\@empty\else\footnotetext{\textsuperscript{1}\@fundinginfo\par\vspace*{-2\baselineskip}}\par\vspace*{-2\baselineskip}\fi%
  \ifdim\abs@dimb>\FreePageSpace%
    \setbox8=\vbox{\unvbox\abs@boxb}%
    \advance\FreePageSpace by -\@firstpage@foot@height%
    %\advance\FreePageSpace by \baselineskip%
    \setbox1=\vsplit8 to \FreePageSpace%
    \setbox1=\vbox{\unvbox1}%
    \setbox2=\vbox{\unvbox8}%
    \ifdim\abs@dima>\FreePageSpace%
%      \setbox7=\vbox{\unvbox\abs@boxa}%
      %\advance\FreePageSpace by -\@firstpage@foot@height%
      %\advance\FreePageSpace by \baselineskip%
      \setbox3=\vsplit7 to \FreePageSpace%
      \setbox3=\vbox{\unvbox3}%
      \setbox4=\vbox{\unvbox7}%
    \fi%
    \gdef\abs@dimchk{\ifdim\ht3>\ht1\ht3\else\ht1\fi}%
   \parbox{\textwidth}{%
%      \begin{minipage}[t]{\abs@coli@hsize}%
%      \leavevmode\vbox to \abs@dimchk{\ifdim\abs@dima>\FreePageSpace\copy3\else\unvbox\abs@boxa\fi\vfill}%
%      \end{minipage}\hfill%
\FWauthCOvrule %     \hspace*{7\p@}\absCOvrule\hspace*{7\p@}\authCOvrule%
      \begin{minipage}[t]{\textwidth}%
      \leavevmode\hspace*{-\textwidth}\vbox to \abs@dimchk{\unvbox1\vfill}%
      \end{minipage}%
      \vspace*{\@firstpage@foot@height}%
   }% \end{strip}%
    \vfill\eject%
    \loop%
    \ifdim\ht2>\textheight%
    \ovsize=\vsize%
    \setbox1=\vsplit2 to \ovsize%
    \setbox1=\vbox{\unvbox1}%
    \setbox3=\vsplit4 to \ovsize%
    \setbox3=\vbox{\unvbox3}%
    %\ifdim\ht4>\textheight%
    %\oovsize=\vsize%
    %\setbox3=\vsplit4 to \oovsize%
    %\setbox3=\vbox{\unvbox3}%
    \parbox{\textwidth}{%\begin{strip}%
    %  \begin{minipage}[t]{\abs@coli@hsize}%
     % \leavevmode\vbox{\unvbox3\vfill}%
     % \end{minipage}\hfill%
      \FWauthCOvrule%
      \begin{minipage}[t]{\textwidth}%
      \leavevmode\hspace*{-\textwidth}\vbox{\vspace*{7\p@}\unvbox1\vspace*{7\p@}}%
      \end{minipage}%
    }%\end{strip}%
    \clearpage%
    \repeat%
    \gdef\abs@dimchk{\ifdim\ht4>\ht2\ht4\else\ht2\fi}%
    \parbox{\textwidth}{%\begin{strip}
     % \begin{minipage}[t]{\abs@coli@hsize}%
     % \leavevmode\vbox to \abs@dimchk{\copy4\vfill}%
     % \end{minipage}
     % \hfill%
     \FWauthCOvrule% \hspace*{7\p@}\absCOvrule\hspace*{7\p@}\authCOvrule%
      \begin{minipage}[t]{\textwidth}%
      \leavevmode\hspace*{-\textwidth}\vbox to \abs@dimchk{\unvbox2\vfill}%
      \end{minipage}%
      \vspace*{2pc}%
      \vskip\titleskip%
    }%\end{strip}
  \else%
    \ifdim\abs@dima>\FreePageSpace%
%      \setbox8=\vbox{\unvbox\abs@boxa}%
      \advance\FreePageSpace by -\@firstpage@foot@height%
      %\advance\FreePageSpace by \baselineskip%
%      \setbox1=\vsplit8 to \FreePageSpace%
    %  \setbox1=\vbox{\unvbox1}%
%      \setbox2=\vbox{\unvbox8}%
      \parbox{\textwidth}{%\begin{strip}%
%        \begin{minipage}[t]{\abs@coli@hsize}%
 %       \leavevmode\vbox{\copy1\vfill}%
  %      \end{minipage}\hfill%
   %     \hspace*{7\p@}\absCOvrule\hspace*{7\p@}\authCOvrule%
        \begin{minipage}[t]{\textwidth}%
        \leavevmode\hspace*{-\textwidth}\vbox to \ht1{\unvbox\abs@boxb\vfill}%
        \end{minipage}%
        \vspace*{\@firstpage@foot@height}%
      }%\end{strip}%
      \vfill\eject%
      \loop\ifdim\ht2>\textheight%
      \ovsize=\vsize%
      \setbox1=\vsplit2 to \ovsize%
      \setbox1=\vbox{\unvbox1}%
      \parbox{\textwidth}{%\begin{strip}%
%        \begin{minipage}[t]{\abs@coli@hsize}%
 %       \leavevmode\vbox{\unvbox1\vfill}%
  %      \end{minipage}\hfill%
   \FWauthCOvrule%     \hspace*{7\p@}\absCOvrule\hspace*{7\p@}\authCOvrule%
        \begin{minipage}[t]{\textwidth}%
        \leavevmode\hspace*{-\textwidth}\vbox{\vspace*{7\p@}\unvbox1\vspace*{7\p@}}%
        \end{minipage}%
      }%\end{strip}%
      \clearpage%
      \repeat%
      \parbox{\textwidth}{%\begin{strip}
   %     \begin{minipage}[t]{\abs@coli@hsize}%
   %     \leavevmode\vbox{\unvbox2\vfill}%
   %     \end{minipage}
   %     \hfill%
   \FWauthCOvrule%     \hspace*{7\p@}\absCOvrule\hspace*{7\p@}\authCOvrule%
        \begin{minipage}[t]{\textwidth}%
        \leavevmode\hspace*{-\textwidth}\vbox{\vspace*{7\p@}\unvbox2\vspace*{-7\p@}}%
        \end{minipage}%
        \vspace*{2pc}%
        \vskip\titleskip%
      }%\end{strip}
    \else%
      \gdef\abs@dimchk{\ifdim\abs@dima>\abs@dimb\abs@dima\else\abs@dimb\fi}%
     \parbox{\textwidth}{%\begin{strip}%
       % \begin{minipage}[t]{\abs@coli@hsize}%
       % \leavevmode\vbox to \abs@dimchk{\copy\abs@boxa\vfill}%
       % \end{minipage}\hfill%
        \FWauthCOvrule%
        \begin{minipage}[t]{\textwidth}%
        \leavevmode\hspace*{-\textwidth}\vbox to \abs@dimchk{\unvbox\abs@boxb\vfill}%
        \end{minipage}%
        \vspace*{2pc}%
        \vskip\titleskip%
      }%\end{strip}%
    \fi%
  \fi%
  \ifx\@titlenotes\@empty\else\global\thankstrue\footnotetext{\@titlenotes\par\vspace*{-\baselineskip}}\fi%
}%


\newif\ifabstract\global\abstractfalse%
\newif\ifFWabstract%
%
\gdef\printabstractpart{%
  \absworkarea{%
    \noindent{\reset@font\addressfont\jmkaddress\par}%\movedauaddress\@movedauaddress%\@corres%
   % \noindent\ifx\movedauaddress\@empty\else{\addressfont\@movedauaddress\par}\fi%
 \removelastskip\vskip8pt%
   \ifx\@corresinfo\empty\else{\corresinfo\par}\fi%
   \removelastskip\vskip8pt%
   \ifx\@presentaddress\empty\else\@presentaddress\fi%
   \removelastskip\vskip8pt%
    %%\fundingInfo{\fundagenandnum}%
    %%\ifx\@fundinginfo\@empty\else\par\@fundinginfo\fi%
    \@starttoc{finfo}%
    \ifx\@JELinfo\@empty\else\par\@JELinfo\fi%
  }{%
    \global\abstracttrue%
    \ifx\@abstract\@empty\else\@abstract\fi%
\removelastskip\vskip15pt%
    \ifx\@keywords\@empty\else\@keywords\fi%
    \global\abstractfalse%
  }
}

%% Printing Abstract
%% Printing Abstract
\long\def\printabstract{%
  \bgroup%
    \setlength{\parindent}{\z@}%
    \printabstractpart%
  \egroup%
}%

%% Legal Statement
\def\legalstatement#1{%
  \gdef\@temp{#1}%
  \ifx\@temp\@empty%
    \gdef\@legalstatement{}%
  \else%
    \gdef\@legalstatement{%
      \smash{{\color{thirtyfivepercent}\@headfootrule}}\par\vspace*{-.45\baselineskip}%
      \parbox[t]{\textwidth}{{\color{seventyfivepercent}\legalstatementfont#1\dummyalphabet\par}}\par\vspace*{4.75\p@}%
    }%
  \fi%
}\legalstatement{}%


%% Keywords %%

\def\keywords#1{\def\@keywords{{\keywordsheadfont\textbf{KEYWORDS:}\par\removelastskip\nointerlineskip\vskip6pt \keywordsfont#1\par}}}\def\@keywords{}%

\def\@fnsymbol#1{\ifcase#1\or \dagger\or \ddagger\or
   \S\or \P\or \#\or \|\or **\or \dagger\dagger
   \or \ddagger\ddagger\or \S\S\or \P\P\or \#\#\or \|\|\else\@ctrerr\fi\relax}

\renewcommand{\maketitle}{\par%
  \@afterindentfalse%
  \begingroup
    \renewcommand{\thefootnote}{\fnsymbol{footnote}}%
    \def\@makefnmark{\hbox to\z@{$\m@th^{\@thefnmark}$\hss}}%
    \long\def\@makefntext##1{\parindent 1em\noindent
            \hbox to1.8em{\hss$\m@th^{\@thefnmark}$}##1}%
    \if@twocolumn
      \ifnum \col@number=\@ne
         \twocolumn[\@maketitle]%
      \else
         \twocolumn[\@maketitle]%
      \fi
    \else
      \newpage
      \global\@topnum\z@   % Prevents figures from going at top of page.
      \@maketitle
    \fi
    \thispagestyle{titlepage}\@thanks%
    \insert\footins{\authfndefns}\par%
  \endgroup
%  \let\footnotetext\oldfootnotetext%
  \setcounter{footnote}{0}%
  \let\thanks\relax
  \let\maketitle\relax\let\@maketitle\relax
  \gdef\@thanks{}\gdef\@author{}\gdef\@title{}
  \@afterheading%
}

\newskip\adjtitleskip%

\adjtitleskip=10pt plus4pt minus2pt

\renewcommand{\@maketitle}{{\unskip%
\hsize=\textwidth\parindent=0pt%
\thispagestyle{empty}%
%%\let\footnote\thanks%
%\removelastskip\vskip-21.13pt%
%\ifproof\artoprunningheaders\else\nullartoprunningheaders\fi\par%
\removelastskip\vspace*{5pt}%
\ifx\@DocHead\empty%
  \zz{\@DocHead\par}%
\else%
  {\@DocHead\par}%
\fi%
\removelastskip\vskip4pt%
\ifx\@title\empty\else{\@title\par}\fi%
\removelastskip\vskip18pt%
\ifnum\aucount>0%
   \global\punctcount\aucount%
   {\artauthors\par}%
   \removelastskip\vskip8.25pt%
%   {\jmkaddress\par}%
\fi%
 %  \removelastskip\vskip9pt%
  % \ifx\@corresinfo\empty\else{\corresinfo\par}\fi%
   %\removelastskip\vskip8pt%
   %\ifx\@presentaddress\empty\else\@presentaddress\fi%
   %\removelastskip\vskip8pt%
   %{\history\par}%
   %\removelastskip\vskip12pt%
%   \ifx\@abstract\empty\else{\@abstract\par}\fi%
   \removelastskip\vskip19pt%
%   \ifx\@keywords\empty\else{\@keywords\par}\fi%
   \printabstract
%%   \vspace*{10pt plus4pt minus2pt}%
   \removelastskip\vskip\adjtitleskip%
}}%

%\renewcommand\thefootnote{\@arabic\c@footnote}%

%
%%

%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%section defn%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%

%\setcounter{secnumdepth}{3}
\newcounter {chapter}[part]% for bookmarks
\renewcommand\thepart         {\@Roman\c@part}
\renewcommand\thesection      {\@arabic\c@section}
\renewcommand\thesubsection   {\thesection.\@arabic\c@subsection}
\renewcommand\thesubsubsection{\thesubsection.\@arabic\c@subsubsection}
\renewcommand\theparagraph    {\thesubsubsection.\@arabic\c@paragraph}
\renewcommand\thesubparagraph {\theparagraph\@arabic\c@subparagraph}
%%
\renewcommand\part{\par
   \addvspace{4ex}%
   \@afterindentfalse
   \secdef\@part\@spart}
%%
\def\@part[#1]#2{%
    \ifnum \c@secnumdepth >\m@ne
      \refstepcounter{part}%
      \addcontentsline{toc}{part}{\thepart\hspace{1em}#1}%
    \else
      \addcontentsline{toc}{part}{#1}%
    \fi
    {\parindent \z@ \raggedright
     \interlinepenalty \@M
     \normalfont
     \ifnum \c@secnumdepth >\m@ne
       \Large\bfseries \partname~\thepart
       \par\nobreak
     \fi
     \huge \bfseries #2%
     \markboth{}{}\par}%
    \nobreak
    \vskip 3ex
    \@afterheading}

\def\@spart#1{%
    {\parindent \z@ \raggedright
     \interlinepenalty \@M
     \normalfont
     \huge \bfseries #1\par}%
     \nobreak
     \vskip 3ex
     \@afterheading}

\renewcommand\section{\@startsection{section}{1}{\z@}{-27pt \@plus -2pt \@minus -2pt}{12\p@}{\sectionfont}}%
\renewcommand\subsection{\@startsection{subsection}{2}{\z@}{-23pt \@plus -2pt \@minus -2pt}{5\p@}{\subsectionfont}}%
\renewcommand\subsubsection{\@startsection{subsubsection}{3}{\z@}{-20pt \@plus -2pt \@minus -2pt}{2\p@}{\subsubsectionfont}}%
%
\newskip\secruleskip\secruleskip8.5\p@%
%\def\secrule{\color{sixtyfivepercent}\hspace*{\secruleskip}\raisebox{0pt}{\rule{.5\p@}{7.5\p@}}\hspace*{\secruleskip}}%
%\def\subsecrule{\color{sixtyfivepercent}\secrule}%
%\def\subsubsecrule{\color{sixtyfivepercent}\hspace*{\secruleskip}\raisebox{0pt}{\rule{.5\p@}{6.5\p@}}\hspace*{\secruleskip}}%

\def\secrule{\hspace*{\secruleskip}\raisebox{0pt}{\rule{.5\p@}{7.5\p@}}\hspace*{\secruleskip}}%
\def\subsecrule{\secrule}%
\def\subsubsecrule{\hspace*{\secruleskip}\raisebox{0pt}{\rule{.5\p@}{6.5\p@}}\hspace*{\secruleskip}}%


\def\@sectioncntformat#1{{\ifappendixsec\csname the#1\endcsname\ \else\csname the#1\endcsname\secrule\fi}}%
\def\@subsectioncntformat#1{{\ifappendixsec\csname the#1\endcsname\ \else\csname the#1\endcsname\subsecrule\fi}}%
\def\@subsubsectioncntformat#1{{\ifappendixsec\csname the#1\endcsname\ \else\csname the#1\endcsname\subsubsecrule\fi}}%

\def\@paragraphcntformat#1{{\ifappendixsec\csname the#1\endcsname\ \else\csname the#1\endcsname.\ \fi}}%
\def\@subparagraphcntformat#1{#1}
%
\if@font@stix\relax%
\renewcommand\paragraph{\@startsection{paragraph}{4}{\z@}{-10pt \@plus -2pt \@minus -2pt}{2\p@}{\paragraphfont}}%
\renewcommand\subparagraph{\@startsection{subparagraph}{5}{\z@}{-10pt \@plus -2pt \@minus -2pt}{-12\p@}{\subparagraphfont}}%
\def\@sect#1#2#3#4#5#6[#7]#8{%
   \ifnum #2>\c@secnumdepth%
      \edef\@svsec{\noindent}%
   \else%
      \refstepcounter{#1}%
      \let\@@protect\protect%
      \def\protect{\noexpand\protect\noexpand}%
      \edef\@svsec{\csname @#1cntformat\endcsname{#1}}%
      \let\protect\@@protect%
   \fi%
   \@tempskipa #5\relax%
   \ifdim \@tempskipa>\z@%
      \ifnum#2=1%
         \begingroup #6\relax%\@hangfrom%
            {\noindent\hskip #3\relax{\@svsec}}%
            {\interlinepenalty\@M{\uppercase{#8}}\par}%
         \endgroup%
      \else%
         \ifnum#2=2%
            \begingroup #6\relax%\@hangfrom%
               {\noindent\hskip #3\relax\@svsec}%
               {\interlinepenalty\@M{#8}\par}%
            \endgroup%
         \else%
      \ifnum#2=3%
            \begingroup #6\relax%\@hangfrom%
               {\noindent\hskip #3\relax\@svsec}%
               {\interlinepenalty\@M{#8}\par}%
            \endgroup%
         \else%
      \ifnum#2=4%
            \begingroup #6\relax%\@hangfrom%
               {\noindent\hskip #3\relax\@svsec}%
               {\interlinepenalty\@M{\textcolor{black!75}{#8}}\par}%
            \endgroup%
         \else%
            \begingroup #6\relax%\@hangfrom
               {\noindent\hskip #3\relax\@svsec}%
               {\interlinepenalty\@M#8\par}%
            \endgroup%
         \fi%
     \fi%
     \fi%
      \fi%
      \csname #1mark\endcsname{#7}%
      \addcontentsline{toc}{#1}{%
        \ifnum #2>\c@secnumdepth \else%
          \protect\numberline{\csname the#1\endcsname}%
        \fi%
        #7}%
   \else%
      \def\@svsechd{%
         #6{\hskip #3\relax%
         \@svsec \textcolor{black!75}{#8}\hspace*{4pt}}%
      }%
   \fi%
   \@xsect{#5}%
}%
\else%
\renewcommand\paragraph{\@startsection{paragraph}{4}{\z@}{-20pt \@plus -2pt \@minus -2pt}{2\p@}{\paragraphfont}}%
\renewcommand\subparagraph{\@startsection{subparagraph}{5}{\z@}{-20pt \@plus -2pt \@minus -2pt}{-12\p@}{\subparagraphfont}}%
\def\@sect#1#2#3#4#5#6[#7]#8{%
   \ifnum #2>\c@secnumdepth%
      \edef\@svsec{\noindent}%
   \else%
      \refstepcounter{#1}%
      \let\@@protect\protect%
      \def\protect{\noexpand\protect\noexpand}%
      \edef\@svsec{\csname @#1cntformat\endcsname{#1}}%
      \let\protect\@@protect%
   \fi%
   \@tempskipa #5\relax%
   \ifdim \@tempskipa>\z@%
      \ifnum#2=1%
         \begingroup #6\relax%\@hangfrom%
            {\noindent\hskip #3\relax{\@svsec}}%
            {\interlinepenalty\@M{\uppercase{#8}}\par}%
         \endgroup%
      \else%
         \ifnum#2=2%
            \begingroup #6\relax%\@hangfrom%
               {\noindent\hskip #3\relax\@svsec}%
               {\interlinepenalty\@M{#8}\par}%
            \endgroup%
         \else%
            \begingroup #6\relax%\@hangfrom
               {\noindent\hskip #3\relax\@svsec}%
               {\interlinepenalty\@M#8\par}%
            \endgroup%
         \fi%
      \fi%
      \csname #1mark\endcsname{#7}%
      \addcontentsline{toc}{#1}{%
        \ifnum #2>\c@secnumdepth \else%
          \protect\numberline{\csname the#1\endcsname}%
        \fi%
        #7}%
   \else%
      \def\@svsechd{%
         #6{\hskip #3\relax%
         \@svsec #8.\hspace*{6pt}}%
      }%
   \fi%
   \@xsect{#5}%
}%
\fi%

\def\@ssect#1#2#3#4#5#6{%
   %#1#2#3#4#5#6
   \@tempskipa #4\relax%
   \ifdim\@tempskipa>\z@%
      \ifnum#1=1%
         \begingroup%
            #5{\@hangfrom{\hskip #2}%
            \interlinepenalty \@M\uppercase{#6}\@@par}%
         \endgroup%
         \addcontentsline{toc}{section}{#6}%
      \else%
         \begingroup%
            #5{\@hangfrom{\hskip #2}%
            \interlinepenalty \@M#6\@@par}%
         \endgroup%
      \fi%
   \else%
      \def\@svsechd{#5{\hskip #2\relax #6}}%
   \fi%
   \@xsect{#4}%
}%
%
\def\@startsection#1#2#3#4#5#6{%
   \if@noskipsec\leavevmode\fi%
   \par%
   \@tempskipa #4\relax%
   \@afterindenttrue%
   \ifdim \@tempskipa <\z@%
      \@tempskipa-\@tempskipa%
      \@afterindentfalse%
   \fi
   \if@nobreak
      %\ifnum#2=2%
      %   \vspace*{-2.4\p@}%
      %\fi%
      \everypar{}%
   \else%
      \addpenalty\@secpenalty%
      \addvspace\@tempskipa%
   \fi%
   \@ifstar%
      {\@ssect{#2}{#3}{#4}{#5}{#6}}%
      {\@dblarg{\@sect{#1}{#2}{#3}{#4}{#5}{#6}}}}%

%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
%
%% Regular pagestyle %%
%

\def\@authormark{}% 
\def\authormark#1{%
\markboth{{{#1}}}{{{#1}}}\gdef\@authormark{\def\etal{\textit{ET AL.}}\let\AQ\AHAQ#1}\gdef\@authormarkforcite{\undefined\def\etal{\textit{et al.}}#1}}%
\def\etal{\textit{et al.}}%

\newskip\rhverticalsep\rhverticalsep11.5\p@%
\def\oddpage@headings@def{\hspace*{\rhverticalsep}\rhvertbar\pagenumberalign{\hss\thepagedef}}%
\def\evenpage@headings@def{\pagenumberalign{\thepagedef\hss}\rhvertbar\hspace*{\rhverticalsep}}%

\def\leftmarkdef{{\runningheadfont\@authormark}}%
\def\rightmarkdef{{\runningheadfont\@authormark}}%
%
\def\headfootrule#1{\gdef\@headfootrule{#1}}\headfootrule{{\rule{\textwidth}{.5\p@}}}%
%
\def\head@headings@def#1{\vbox{%
  \strut\par\vspace*{-5pt}%
\vspace*{2\p@}%\fi%
  \@headfootrule\par%\vspace*{-8.25\p@}%
\vspace*{-11\p@}%\fi%
  \hbox to \textwidth{#1\dummyalphabet}\par\vspace*{\p@}%
  }%
}%
%

\def\oddhead@headings@info{\head@headings@def{\rightmarkdef\hfill\oddpage@headings@def}}%
\def\evenhead@headings@info{\head@headings@def{\evenpage@headings@def\hfill\leftmarkdef}}%

\def\ps@headings{%
\let\@oddfoot\@empty\let\@evenfoot\@empty%
  \def\@oddhead{\oddhead@headings@info}%
  \def\@evenhead{\evenhead@headings@info}%
\let\@mkboth\markboth%
}%
\pagestyle{headings}%
%

%% Macros for Section headings %%

\setcounter{secnumdepth}{3}% 
%

\newif\if@FTSection%
\global\@FTSectionfalse%

\newif\if@unnumsection%
\@unnumsectionfalse%


%% Macros for Bibliography %%

\newif\ifbackmatter%
\newcommand{\backmatter}{\par\global\backmattertrue}%

%%\@ifundefined{@biboptions}{\xdef\@biboptions{numbers,sort&compress}}{}
\@ifundefined{@biboptions}{\xdef\@biboptions{authoryear}}{}
%
%\RequirePackage[\@biboptions]{natbib}%
\RequirePackage[natbibapa]{apacite}
%
\@ifpackageloaded{natbib}{%
\@namedef{thebibliography*}{\def\bibsection{}\thebibliography}
\@namedef{endthebibliography*}{\endthebibliography}
}
{
\@namedef{thebibliography*}{\def\refname{}\thebibliography}
\@namedef{endthebibliography*}{\endthebibliography}
}
%
\def\@bibtype{}
\def\bibtype#1{\gdef\@bibtype{#1}}
%
\bibsep=0pt%
\bibhang=0pt%
\def\bibfont{\reset@font\fontfamily{\rmdefault}\fontsize{9bp}{10.5}\selectfont}%  17Dec2016
%
\renewenvironment{thebibliography*}[1]{%
%%\bibsection%
%%\if!#1!\relax\@latexerr{Pl. provide highest bibnumber.}\@ehc\global\bibunnumberedtrue\fi%
\parindent\z@
\bibpreamble
\bibfont%
\ifbibunnumbered%
%%\typeout{Unnumbered Bibliography style details are yet to check.}%
\def\@biblabel##1{}%
      \list{}{\global\c@NAT@ctr\z@%
            \settowidth\labelwidth{0pt}%
            \setlength{\topsep}{11pt}%
            \setlength{\itemsep}{0pt}%
            \setlength{\parsep}{0pt}%
            \setlength{\partopsep}{0pt}%
            \setlength{\leftmargin}{14pt}%
            \setlength{\itemindent}{-14pt}%
            \@openbib@code%
            \let\p@enumiv\@empty%
            \renewcommand\theenumiv{}%
        \def\labelenumiv{\theenumiv}}%
\else%
\def\@biblabel##1{\hbox to \labelwidth{\hfill[##1]}}%numbering style whether enclosed with [], (), [1]
\list{\@biblabel{\the\c@NAT@ctr}}{\@bibsetup{#1}\global\c@NAT@ctr\z@%
       \setlength{\labelsep}{4pt}%
       \setlength{\topsep}{0pt}%
       \setlength{\itemsep}{0pt}%
       \setlength{\parsep}{0pt}%
       \setlength{\partopsep}{0pt}%
       \setlength{\leftmargin}{0pt}
       \settowidth\labelwidth{[#1]}
       \addtolength{\leftmargin}{\labelwidth}
       \addtolength{\leftmargin}{\labelsep}
}%
\fi%
 \ifNAT@openbib
   \renewcommand\newblock{\par}%
 \else
   \renewcommand\newblock{\hskip .11em \@plus.33em \@minus.07em}%
 \fi
 \sloppy\clubpenalty4000\widowpenalty4000
 \sfcode`\.\@m
 \let\NAT@bibitem@first@sw\@firstoftwo
    \let\citeN\cite \let\shortcite\cite
    \let\citeasnoun\cite
}{%
 \bibitem@fin
 \bibpostamble
 \def\@noitemerr{%
  \PackageWarning{natbib}{Empty `thebibliography' environment}%
 }%
 \endlist
 \bibcleanup
 \ifAQ\PutQueries\fi\ifproof\PutQueryPageAuthorNames\fi%
\vspace*{-0pt}
}
%
\renewenvironment{thebibliography}[1]{%
\section*{References}
%%\bibsection%
%%\if!#1!\relax\@latexerr{Pl. provide highest bibnumber.}\@ehc\global\bibunnumberedtrue\fi%
\parindent\z@
\bibpreamble
\bibfont%
\ifbibunnumbered%
%%\typeout{Unnumbered Bibliography style details are yet to check.}%
\def\@biblabel##1{}%
      \list{}{\global\c@NAT@ctr\z@%
            \settowidth\labelwidth{0pt}%
            \setlength{\topsep}{11pt}%
            \setlength{\itemsep}{0pt}%
            \setlength{\parsep}{0pt}%
            \setlength{\partopsep}{0pt}%
            \setlength{\leftmargin}{14pt}%
            \setlength{\itemindent}{-14pt}%
            \@openbib@code%
            \let\p@enumiv\@empty%
            \renewcommand\theenumiv{}%
        \def\labelenumiv{\theenumiv}}%
\else%
\def\@biblabel##1{\hbox to \labelwidth{\hfill[##1]}}%numbering style whether enclosed with [], (), [1]
\list{\@biblabel{\the\c@NAT@ctr}}{\@bibsetup{#1}\global\c@NAT@ctr\z@%
       \setlength{\labelsep}{4pt}%
       \setlength{\topsep}{0pt}%
       \setlength{\itemsep}{0pt}%
       \setlength{\parsep}{0pt}%
       \setlength{\partopsep}{0pt}%
       \setlength{\leftmargin}{0pt}
       \settowidth\labelwidth{[#1]}
       \addtolength{\leftmargin}{\labelwidth}
       \addtolength{\leftmargin}{\labelsep}
}%
\fi%
 \ifNAT@openbib
   \renewcommand\newblock{\par}%
 \else
   \renewcommand\newblock{\hskip .11em \@plus.33em \@minus.07em}%
 \fi
 \sloppy\clubpenalty4000\widowpenalty4000
 \sfcode`\.\@m
 \let\NAT@bibitem@first@sw\@firstoftwo
    \let\citeN\cite \let\shortcite\cite
    \let\citeasnoun\cite
}{%
 \bibitem@fin
 \bibpostamble
 \def\@noitemerr{%
  \PackageWarning{natbib}{Empty `thebibliography' environment}%
 }%
 \endlist
 \printjnlcitation%
 \bibcleanup
 %%\ifAQ\PutQueries\fi%
\vspace*{-0pt}
}

\bibliographystyle{Wiley-ASNA}%

%
%% Macros for Scheme %%
%
\def\ftype@scheme{1}%
\def\ext@scheme{los}%
\def\fps@scheme{tbp}%
\newcounter{scheme}%
\setcounter{scheme}{0}%
\renewcommand{\thescheme}{\@arabic\c@scheme}%
\newenvironment{scheme}%
               {\@float{scheme}}%
               {\end@float}
\newenvironment{scheme*}%
               {\@dblfloat{scheme}}%
               {\end@dblfloat}
%
%% Macros for display equations %%

\let\SplitEq\relax%

\setlength\arraycolsep{2\p@}%
\setlength\tabcolsep{6\p@}%
\setlength\arrayrulewidth{.4\p@}%
\setlength\doublerulesep{4\p@}%
\setlength\tabbingsep{\labelsep}%

\def\eqnarray{%%\initialset%%%introduced on 31Oct15%
   \stepcounter{equation}%
   \def\@currentlabel{\p@equation\theequation}%
   \global\@eqnswtrue
   \m@th
   \global\@eqcnt\z@
   \tabskip\@centering%
   \let\\\@eqncr
   $$\everycr{}\halign to\displaywidth\bgroup
       \hskip\@centering$\displaystyle\tabskip\z@skip{##}$\@eqnsel% for centered equations
%%     \hskip\z@skip\hfil$\displaystyle\tabskip\z@skip{##}$\@eqnsel% for left aligned equations
      &\global\@eqcnt\@ne\hskip \tw@\arraycolsep \hfil${##}$\hfil
      &\global\@eqcnt\tw@ \hskip \tw@\arraycolsep
         $\displaystyle{##}$\hfil\tabskip\@centering
      &\global\@eqcnt\thr@@ \hb@xt@\z@\bgroup\hss##\egroup
       \tabskip\z@skip
      \cr
}
\def\endeqnarray{%
      \@@eqncr
      \egroup
      \global\advance\c@equation\m@ne
   $$\@ignoretrue
}
%

%

%% Macros for Tables %%

\RequirePackage{booktabs}%

%%%%table notes%%%%
\newenvironment{tablenotes}{\list{}{\setlength{\labelsep}{0pt}% 
\setlength{\labelwidth}{0pt}%
\setlength{\leftmargin}{0pt}%
\setlength{\rightmargin}{0pt}%
\setlength{\topsep}{2pt}%
\setlength{\itemsep}{0pt}%
\setlength{\partopsep}{0pt}%
\setlength{\listparindent}{0em}%
\setlength{\parsep}{0pt}}%
\item\relax%
}{\endlist}%

\def\tnote#1{#1}%%

%

%
%\renewenvironment{sidewaystable*}
%               {\@rotdblfloat{table}}
%               {\thisfloatpagestyle{headings}\end@rotdblfloat}%

%\renewenvironment{sidewaysfigure*}
%               {\@rotdblfloat{figure}}
%               {\thisfloatpagestyle{headings}\end@rotdblfloat}

%% Macros for Quote %%

\renewenvironment{quote}{\list{}{\setlength{\labelsep}{0pt}% 
\setlength{\labelwidth}{0pt}%
\setlength{\leftmargin}{\parindentvalue}%
\setlength{\rightmargin}{\parindentvalue}%
\setlength{\topsep}{12.5pt \@plus2pt \@minus1pt}% 
\setlength{\itemsep}{0pt}%
\setlength{\partopsep}{0pt}%
\setlength{\listparindent}{0em}%
\setlength{\parsep}{0pt}}%
\def\rightline##1{\undefined\vspace*{6pt}\@@line{\hss##1}}%
\item\relax%
}{\endlist}%

%%
%%%% Enunciations: Theorem-like styles %%
%%

\let\iint\undefined%
\let\iiint\undefined%
\let\iiiint\undefined%
\let\dddot\undefined%
\let\ddddot\undefined%
\let\overleftrightarrow\undefined%
\let\underrightarrow\undefined%
\let\underleftarrow\undefined%
\let\underleftrightarrow\undefined%

\RequirePackage[intlimits,sumlimits,namelimits,centertags]{amsmath}%

\RequirePackage{amsthm}

\newif\ifeproof%

%%introduced to make number in italics
%\def\thmhead@plain#1#2#3{%
%  \thmname{#1}\ifeproof\else\thmnumber{\@ifnotempty{#1}{ }\textit{#2}}%
%  \thmnote{ {\the\thm@notefont\textit{(#3)}}}\fi}

%\newtheorem{theorem}{Theorem}
%\newtheorem{lemma}{Lemma}
%\newtheorem{proposition}{Proposition}
%\newtheorem{definition}{Definition}
%\newtheorem{corollary}{Corollary}
%\newtheorem{conjecture}{Conjecture}
%\newtheorem{eremark}{Remark}
%\newtheorem{case}{Case}
%\newtheorem{eexample}{Example}
%\newtheorem{estep}{Step}
%\newtheorem{eproof}{Proof}
\def\thm@space@setup{%
  \thm@preskip=7\p@ \thm@postskip=7\p@
}
\thm@headpunct{}

\def\thmsep{9pt}%

\newif\ifOldenunciation%
\newif\ifEnunciation%

\newtheoremstyle{plain}% Numbered
{8pt}% Space above
{8pt}% Space below
{\Enunciationtrue\ifOldenunciation\else\leftskip8pt\rightskip8pt\fi\normalfont}% Body font
{}% Indent amount
{\itshape}% Theorem head font
{}% Punctuation after theorem head
{\newline}% Space after theorem headi
{}% Theorem head spec (can be left empty, meaning `normal')

%\renewenvironment{proof}[1][\proofname]{\par%
%\pushQED{\qed}%
%  \pushQED{\fontsize{9}{0}\selectfont{\qed}}%
%\pushQED{\hfill\fontsize{9}{0}\selectfont{$\square$}}%
%  \normalfont \topsep8\p@\@plus6\p@\relax
%  \noindent\ignorespaces{\itshape#1}\newline%\itshape
%}{%
%\popQED\endtrivlist\@endpefalse
%}
%

\newtheoremstyle{WBstyleone}
  {6\p@} % Space above
  {6\p@} % Space below
  {\Enunciationtrue\leftskip8pt\rightskip8pt\normalfont\itshape} % Body font
  {\z@} % Indent amount
  {\bfseries} % Theorem head font
  {.} % Punctuation after theorem head
  {5\p@} % Space after theorem head
  {} % Theorem head spec (can be left empty, meaning `normal')

\renewenvironment{proof}[1][\proofname]{\par
  \pushQED{\qed}%
  \normalfont \topsep6\p@\@plus6\p@\relax
  \trivlist
  \item[\hskip\labelsep
        \itshape
    #1\@addpunct{.}]\ignorespaces\Enunciationtrue\ifOldenunciation\else\leftskip8pt\rightskip8pt\fi
\itshape}{%\vspace*{-\baselineskip}%
  \popQED\endtrivlist\@endpefalse
}


\newtheoremstyle{WBstyletwo}
  {6\p@} % Space above
  {6\p@} % Space below
  {\Enunciationtrue\leftskip8pt\rightskip8pt\normalfont} % Body font
  {\z@} % Indent amount
  {\itshape} % Theorem head font
  {.} % Punctuation after theorem head
  {5\p@} % Space after theorem head
  {\thmname{#1}\thmnumber{ #2}\thmnote{. #3}} % Theorem head spec (can be left empty, meaning `normal')
  
\newtheoremstyle{WBstylethree}
  {6\p@} % Space above
  {6\p@} % Space below
  {\Enunciationtrue\normalfont\leftskip8pt\rightskip8pt} % Body font
  {\z@} % Indent amount
  {\bfseries} % Theorem head font
  {.} % Punctuation after theorem head
  {5\p@} % Space after theorem head
  {} % Theorem head spec (can be left empty, meaning `normal')

\theoremstyle{WBstyleone}
\newtheorem{theorem}{Theorem}
\newtheorem{construction}{Construction}
\newtheorem{estimate}{Estimate}
\newtheorem{lemma}{Lemma}
\newtheorem{corollary}{Corollary}
\newtheorem{result}{Result}
\newtheorem{algth}{Algorithm}
\newtheorem{proposition}{Proposition}
\newtheorem{hypothesis}{Hypothesis}
\newtheorem{experiment}{Experiment}
\newtheorem{LWrule}{Rule}
\newtheorem{procedure}{Procedure}

\newtheorem{assertion}{Assertion}
\newtheorem{axiom}{Axiom}
\newtheorem{conjecture}{Conjecture}
\newtheorem{criterion}{Criterion}
\newtheorem{reduction}{Reduction}
\newtheorem{sublemma}{Sublemma}


\theoremstyle{WBstyletwo}
\newtheorem{case}{Case}
\newtheorem{remark}{Remark}
\newtheorem{notation}{Notation}

\newtheorem{answer}{Answer}
\newtheorem{base}{Base}
\newtheorem{claim}{Claim}
\newtheorem{ccomment}{Comment}
\newtheorem{subproof}{Subproof}
\newtheorem{conclusion}{Conclusion}
\newtheorem{observation}{Observation}
\newtheorem{subcase}{Subcase}
\newtheorem{step}{Step}
\newtheorem{summary}{Summary}



\theoremstyle{WBstylethree}
\newtheorem{definition}{Definition}
\newtheorem{condition}{Condition}
\newtheorem{property}{Property}
\newtheorem{problem}{Problem}
\newtheorem{fact}{Fact}
\newtheorem{assumption}{Assumption}
\newtheorem{eexample}{Example}
\newtheorem{model}{Model}

\newtheorem{affirmation}{Affirmation}
\newtheorem{application}{Application}
\newtheorem{convention}{Convention}
\newtheorem{discussion}{Discussion}
\newtheorem{exercise}{Exercise}
\newtheorem{question}{Question}
\newtheorem{scholium}{Scholium}
\newtheorem{terminology}{Terminology}

%
%% Macros for Appendix %%
%
\newif\ifappendixsec%
\def\appendix{\global\appendixsectrue\printjnlcitation%
  \setcounter{section}{0}%
  \setcounter{subsection}{0}%
  \setcounter{subsubsection}{0}%
  \setcounter{figure}{0}%
  \setcounter{table}{0}%
  \setcounter{equation}{0}%
  \renewcommand\thesection{APPENDIX\ \@Alph\c@section:}%
  \renewcommand\thesubsection{\@Alph\c@section.\@arabic\c@subsection}%
  \renewcommand\thesubsubsection{\thesubsection.\@arabic\c@subsubsection}%
  \renewcommand\thefigure{\@Alph\c@section\arabic{figure}\enspace }%
  \renewcommand\thetable{\@Alph\c@section\arabic{table}\enspace }%
  \renewcommand\theequation{\@Alph\c@section\arabic{equation}}%
}%
%
\renewcommand\footnoterule{%%LN
  \kern-3\p@%
  \hrule height0.5pt%
  \kern4.4\p@%
}%

%
%%% Macros for float algorithm %%%

%\usepackage[plain]{algorithm} %% wrapper
%\usepackage{varwidth}%
%\usepackage{algorithmicx}%
%\usepackage{algpseudocode}%
\usepackage{algorithm, algorithmicx, algpseudocode}

\usepackage{listings}%
\usepackage{alltt}%


%%% Macros for upright lowercase greek characters %%%


%% since small triangle symbol is not found used \triangleright and rotated to 90 degrees %%


\def\@jissue{}%
\def\jissue#1{\gdef\@jissue{#1}}%

\def\@licenseVal{}%
\def\licenseVal#1{\gdef\@licenseVal{#1}}%

\def\@supplinks{}%
\def\supplinks#1{\gdef\@supplinks{#1}}%

\def\@coninterest{}%
\def\coninterest#1{\gdef\@coninterest{#1}}%

\def\@confinfo{}%
\def\confinfo#1{\def\@confinfo{#1}}%

\def\@cdate{}%
\def\cdate#1{\gdef\@cdate{#1}}%

\def\@cname{}%
\def\cname#1{\gdef\@cname{#1}}%

\def\@cloc{}%
\def\cloc#1{\gdef\@cloc{#1}}%

\def\tabheadfont{}%

\let\fullpagewidth\textwidth%

\def\jargon#1{#1}%

\newenvironment{bm}[1][]{\begingroup%
\if!#1!\else\section*{#1}\fi%
}{\endgroup}

\let\glosslist\description%
\let\endglosslist\enddescription%

\newenvironment{ack}[1][]{\begingroup%
\if!#1!\else\section*{#1}\fi%
}{\endgroup}

\def\APLrightarrowbox{}% Use \usepackage{wasysym} to get this symbol
\def\boxcircle{}%

%% Macros for \citation tag %%

\newbox\jnlcitationbox%

\def\cname#1{\gdef\author##1{##1}#1}%
\def\cyear#1{#1}%
\def\ctitle#1{#1}%
\def\cjournal#1{\textit{#1}}%
\def\cvol#1{\textit{#1}}%

\gdef\@jnlcitation{}%
\def\jnlcitation#1{\gdef\@jnlcitation{\textbf{How to cite this article: }#1}}%

\newdimen\jnlcithsize%
%\jnlcithsize=\hsize%
\advance\jnlcithsize-12pt% fbox sep x 2
\advance\jnlcithsize-1pt% fbox rule x 2

\gdef\printjnlcitation{\removelastskip\vskip18pt\fboxsep=6pt\fboxrule=0.5pt%
\hskip-\parindentvalue\fbox{\vbox{\noindent\@jnlcitation}}}%

%\AtEndDocument{\ifappendixsec\else\printjnlcitation\fi}%

%% Misc math macros %%

\newcommand{\xleftrightarrow}[2][]{\ext@arrow 3399\leftrightarrowfill@{##1}{##2}}%

%
%%% Macros for Biography %%%
%
\RequirePackage{wrapfig}%
%
%  \begin{wrapfigure}[12]{r}[34pt]{5cm} <figure> \end{wrapfigure}
%                     --  -  ----  ---
%  [number of narrow lines] {placement} [overhang] {width of figure}
\newcount\wraplines%
\wraplines=5%
%
\newbox\@authorfigbox%
\newskip\@authorfigboxdim%
%

\newskip\biofigadjskip%
\biofigadjskip=0pt%
%
\newenvironment{biography}[2]{\par\addvspace{10.5pt plus3.375pt minus1.6875pt}%\lineno@off%
\def\author#1{\textbf{#1}}%
\def\@authorfig{{#1}}%
\setbox\@authorfigbox=\hbox{#1}%%10Nov16%%
\@authorfigboxdim=\wd\@authorfigbox%
\advance\@authorfigboxdim by 10pt
\if@dblspace\else\wraplines=7\fi%
%14pt%
\noindent{%
\ifx\@authorfig\@empty\else\unskip%
\begin{wrapfigure}[\wraplines]{l}[0pt]{\@authorfigboxdim}%{38.25mm}%
\vskip-25pt\vskip\biofigadjskip%
\@authorfig%
\end{wrapfigure}%
\fi%
#2%
\par%
}}{\par\addvspace{10.5pt plus3.375pt minus1.6875pt}}


%%% Macros for Bibliography %%%

\def\Bem#1{\textit{#1}}%

\AtBeginDocument{%
%
%%\def\BDBL #1#2others{, et al.}% dots before last author when no. of authors > 7 SUJ
%\renewcommand{\BDBL}{, et al.}% dots before last author when no. of authors > 7
%
\renewcommand{\BBOP}{(}%
\renewcommand{\BBCP}{)}%
\renewcommand{\BBAB}{\&} % between authors in in-text citation
\renewcommand{\BBAA}{\&}  % between authors in parenthetical cites and ref. list
\renewcommand{\BAnd}{\&}  % for ``Ed. \& Trans.'' in ref. list
%
\renewcommand{\APACrefYearMonthDay}[3]{%
  {}{#1}%           year (+ addendum); should not be empty
  \ifx\@empty#2\@empty
    \ifx\@empty#3\@empty
    \else
      \unskip, {#3}%     day
    \fi
  \else
    \unskip, {#2}%       month
    \ifx\@empty#3\@empty
    \else
      \unskip~{#3}%      day
    \fi
  \fi
  {}%               closing parenthesis
}
%
\renewcommand{\APACrefYear}[1]{%
  {}{#1}{}}%
%
\renewcommand{\APACrefbtitle}[2]{#2}%
%
\renewcommand{\BEd}{ed.,\hbox{}}         % edition
\renewcommand{\BIn}{}                 % for ``In '' editor...
%
}%
%%% Macros for Bibliography %%%

%% Author macros included from journals.tex %%

%
\def\aaa{A\&A}
\def\aaas{A\&AS}
\def\mnras{MNRAS}
\def\aas{A\&AS}
\def\aj{AJ}
\def\apj{ApJ}
\def\apjl{ApJ}
\def\apjs{ApJS}
\def\baas{BAAS}
\def\pasp{PASP}
\def\pasj{PASJ}
\def\araa{ARA\&A}
\def\an{AN}
\def\apss{Ap\&SS}
\def\aap{A\&A}
\def\aaps{A\&AS}
\let\astap=\aap
\def\aapr{A\&A~Rev.}
\def\actaa{Acta Astron.}
\def\ao{Appl.~Opt.}
\let\applopt\ao
\let\apjlett\apjl
\let\apjsupp\apjs
\def\aplett{Astrophys.~Lett.}
\def\apspr{Astrophys.~Space~Phys.~Res.}
\def\azh{AZh}
\def\bac{Bull. astr. Inst. Czechosl.}
\def\bain{Bull.~Astron.~Inst.~Netherlands}
\def\caa{Chinese Astron. Astrophys.}
\def\cjaa{Chinese J. Astron. Astrophys.}
\def\fcp{Fund.~Cosmic~Phys.}
\def\gca{Geochim.~Cosmochim.~Acta}
\def\grl{Geophys.~Res.~Lett.}
\def\iaucirc{IAU~Circ.}
\def\icarus{Icarus}
\def\jcap{J. Cosmology Astropart. Phys.}
\def\jcp{J.~Chem.~Phys.}
\def\jgr{J.~Geophys.~Res.}
\def\jqsrt{J.~Quant.~Spec.~Radiat.~Transf.}
\def\jrasc{JRASC}
\def\memras{MmRAS}
\def\memsai{Mem.~Soc.~Astron.~Italiana}
\def\na{New A}
\def\nar{New A Rev.}
\def\nat{Nature}
\def\nphysa{Nucl.~Phys.~A}
\def\pasa{PASA}
\def\physrep{Phys.~Rep.}
\def\physscr{Phys.~Scr}
\def\planss{Planet.~Space~Sci.}
\def\pra{Phys.~Rev.~A}
\def\prb{Phys.~Rev.~B}
\def\prc{Phys.~Rev.~C}
\def\prd{Phys.~Rev.~D}
\def\pre{Phys.~Rev.~E}
\def\prl{Phys.~Rev.~Lett.}
\def\procspie{Proc.~SPIE}
\def\qjras{QJRAS}
\def\rmxaa{Rev. Mexicana Astron. Astrofis.}
\def\skytel{S\&T}
\def\solphys{Sol.~Phys.}
\def\sovast{Soviet~Ast.}
\def\ssr{Space~Sci.~Rev.}
\def\zap{ZAp}
% 

\endinput



User avatar
Stefan Kottwitz
Site Admin
Posts: 9785
Joined: Mon Mar 10, 2008 9:44 pm

Postby Stefan Kottwitz » Mon Oct 11, 2021 4:41 pm

Looks like these commands are causing it:

\renewcommand{\thefigure}{\arabic{figure}\enspace }
\renewcommand{\thetable}{\arabic{table}\enspace }


You can redefine it yourself in your document preamble. However, if it's the journal template, it has to be their style, even if you consider it as wrong... perhaps (re-)download the original class file and check if your version has been changed.

Stefan
LaTeX.org admin

olw
Posts: 2
Joined: Mon Oct 11, 2021 4:06 pm

Postby olw » Tue Oct 12, 2021 7:16 am

That was it!
Thank you so much!


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