Thank you very much for your help and thank you very much for that advice of Ulrike Fisher.
I indeed have had a pdflatex.fmt file in the local .texlive2016 tree that wasn't affected by the fmtutil-sys command of the installer and had to manually execute fmtutil --no-strict --byengine=pdftex to solve this problem.
All installed languages are now recognized by babel.
LaTeX forum ⇒ TeX Live and MacTeX ⇒ Hyphenation (German) Not Working After Installation Topic is solved
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