You can't get much more minimal than that. I followed the instructions for installing mfirstuc and glossaries from the CTAN website. I can confirm that they are located in /usr/share/texmf/tex/latex. When I try to perform the following:
-bash-4.1$ pdflatex doc.tex
This is pdfTeXk, Version 3.141592-1.40.3 (Web2C 7.5.6)
%&-line parsing enabled.
entering extended mode
Babel <v3.8h> and hyphenation patterns for english, usenglishmax, dumylang, noh
yphenation, arabic, basque, bulgarian, coptic, welsh, czech, slovak, german, ng
erman, danish, esperanto, spanish, catalan, galician, estonian, farsi, finnish,
french, greek, monogreek, ancientgreek, croatian, hungarian, interlingua, ibyc
us, indonesian, icelandic, italian, latin, mongolian, dutch, norsk, polish, por
tuguese, pinyin, romanian, russian, slovenian, uppersorbian, serbian, swedish,
turkish, ukenglish, ukrainian, loaded.
Document Class: article 2005/09/16 v1.4f Standard LaTeX document class
! LaTeX Error: \mfirstucMakeUppercase undefined.
See the LaTeX manual or LaTeX Companion for explanation.
Type H <return> for immediate help.
I can see that it is loading mfirstuc and glossaries, but why is mfirstucMakeUppercase still undefined? Chasing down the mfirstucMakeUppercase call, it is located in glossaries.sty, version 4.18, 2015/09/09, line 47:
Any insight on this would be great!